Erikson Home Page*Introduction to Stages*Biography*Critiques& Controversies*References & OtherLinks

Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of PsychosocialDevelopment

Summary Chart

1. Oral-SensoryBirth to 12 to 18 monthsTrust vs. Mistrust FeedingThe infant must form a first loving, trustingrelationship with the caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust.
2.Muscular-Anal18 months
to 3years
Autonomy vs.
Thechild's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills,including walking, grasping, and rectal sphincter control. The child learnscontrol but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
3. Locomotor3 to 6 yearsInitiativevs.
IndependenceThe child continues to become more assertive and to take moreinitiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings.
4. Latency6 to 12 yearsIndustryvs. InferioritySchoolThechild must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority,failure and incompetence.
5. Adolescence12 to 18 yearsIdentityvs.
Role Confusion
Peer relationshipsThe teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sexroles, politics, and religion.
6. Young Adulthood19 to 40 yearsIntimacyvs.
Love relationshipsThe young adult must develop intimate relationships or sufferfeelings of isolation.
7. Middle Adulthood40 to 65 years Generativityvs. StagnationParentingEachadult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation.
8. Maturity65 to deathEgoIntegrity vs. DespairReflection on andacceptance of one's lifeThe culmination is a sense ofoneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled.

Introduction to StagesErikson home page