If you are a foreign language teacher, there is a good chance that with your teaching position you inherited a foreign language. These days, as far as I know, most club sponsors get a small additional pay. (Its size may be one of the few things that make us feel a sense of common cause with the school’s coaching staff -- averaging out to half the minimum wage per hour.) From what you read below, you may begin to consider an “international” club approach to help solve a malaise that seems to have invaded many high schools.
Inasmuch as our FL courses are usually not required for students, the public relations that an active and popular FL club creates can often make or deflate the FL enrollment. When several pleas for aid went out over the internet ether early in 1996, as usual, a number of FLTeachers rode to the rescue.
96/02 From-> Denise Rainis-BedfordHS-French <drainis@IDEA.uml.edu>
About FL clubs....
Our French, Spanish, and Latin clubs are, I believe, pretty successful.
Each club sponsors an average of one activity per month-usually with a
The French club activities are usually a "mini-immersion" where the
students sign a pledge as they come in that they understand that English
is not acceptable and that they must speak French or ....leave. We hold
a "Salon de The " once every six weeks or so and serve teas and pastries
(compliments of our local bakers from their day old shelf). The kids
KNOW that French is the only acceptable way to communicate so it is
pretty easy to keep it going. I dare say lots of kids show for a good
excuse to flirt and chat. I spent a few weekends yard-sale shopping and
acquired a neat collection of mismatched china. We also use tablecloths
and have music. The kids volunteer to be garcons ou serveuses. It sounds
corny, but it WORKS.
Depending on the date, the Salon has a holiday theme. We also do a Kinda
Fonda You Fondue party, French flim nites (kids bring pillows and
popcorn) and hve a costume party at Halloween or Mardi Gras.
We charge a one time three dollar membership fee--the kids eat that
pretty quickly. Our big fundraiser is a "Love Connection"--a computer
dating survey done schoolwide.
Bonne Chance and Buena Suerte
96/02 From-> George Watson <GeoWatLop@aol.com>
Some other ideas that come to mind which we have done at my school are:
1. International Film Night... show a film in each language taught at
your school. Kids bring popcorn, choose the film and language they want
to see, go to that room, sit on the floor, and enjoy the evening.
2. International Volleyball Game... have each club play each other for
the gold, silver, and bronze medal in volleyball.
3. Party for greeting exchange students... nice easy to welcome them
the beginning of the year.
4. Treasure Hunt... Have students work in pairs to visit different
teachers after school to find objects which you have planted or answer
questions which are printed on their paper. All clues, of course, are in
the target language. The pair who finds the most objects or answers the
most questions correctly (receiving a teacher signature for such) wins
!Buena suerte con tu proyecto!
96/02 From-> Bob Hall <email@example.com>
>>I'm studying to be a Spanish Teacher. I have my Bachelor's degree
but am finally
>>seeking certification. I have my first methods course and one of thirteen elements
>>required is to come up with ideas for a calendar of events for a foreign language
I am the co-sponsor of the Spanish Club at my high school. The following
are the completed and scheduled activities for our club this year.
September '95---Mexican pot luck. The students provided their favorite
dishes. The club, annual dues of $5.00, provided the drinks, paper
plates, etc and prizes for the games that the club officers came up
October '95---Treasure hunt. Students were put into groups of 4 and
began with a clue which would lead them to their next clue. In all they
had to find 6 clues which eventually brought them back to their
beginning place. My treasure hunt was a story about an avaricious king
who hid his treasure from his subjects. To complete this hunt the
students had to go from one end of the school to the other.
October '95---The co-sponsors attended after-Homecoming on behalf of
club (2:00 a.m. until 4:00 a.m.) in order to earn a portion of the
receipts for the Club. I believe we earned over $100.00 for club use.
November '95---Nacho party and language games. Again the Club provided
the food and drinks.
December '95---We did a civic project, preparing eight food baskets
families in our school community.
December '95---White elephant auction with a Christmas cake and pop
provided by the club
January '96---We had no activities in January
February '96---We begin our officer election process
February '96---We began a new civic project. We had a former student
is in the Peace Corps request our help for children in Nicaragua. We
will assemble several sets of basic school supplies to be sent to her
students in Nicaragua.
March '96---Election of 96-97 officers. Movie night with another nacho
April '96---As yet the activity for this month is undecided.
May '96---Our end of the year activity will be the 2nd Annual Bilingual
Battle and BBQ, an intra-club language games competition followed by a
BBQ. For this event we have a traveling trophy. I'm happy to say that
the Spanish Club were the winners of the 1st BBandBBQ. The down side is
that the Spanish Club will again have to sponsor the event(winning team
96/02 From-> Marie Dzielak <MarieDz@aol.com>
We do a lot of cooking in our club--making churros, nachos con
queso--the kids love it and there's usually not enough time to do this
in class. Having a "Battling Interpreters" competition with MacDonalds
lunch as a prize is also quite popular during the winter months. We also
plan for FL Week activities with the club, like planning daily
announcements in FL languages, decorating classrooms, doors, hallways,
96/02 From-> Barbara Law <KDB_LAW@K12.MEC.OHIO.GOV>
We cook in our foods lab (aka the home-ec room but don't dare call it
that) after school and make tortilla espanola. We also help sponsor a
foreign potluck dinner for foreign language weeks (all languages
involved) and a poster contest for FL week.
At Christmas we go to a nursing home and sing carols in Spanish. In
fall we go on a hayride and sing songs and play games in Spanish.
96/07 From-> Angela Thomas <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: Re: Foreign Language Clubs
>>What I've long dreamed about, though, was some sort of general cross-cultural
>>club. In my school we offer five different languages, and it just seems a natural way
>>for some cross-fertilization of cultural understandings across a broader array of
I would suggest an International Club or something of the sort. Another
school calls their club the Globetrotters. I have been the sponsor of
our club for two years, and have found it very rewarding. The best part
about having an "international" club is that any student can join, and
not just a language student. At least half the students in the club are
ESOL (ESL) students, who normally don't join clubs because they feel
"different". We now have students from ten countries in the club,
including Thailand, Tobago, and Pakistan.
We hold fundraisers (international candy sales, fashion shows, luncheons
for teachers, etc.) and we use the money for field trips and other
activities. We sponsor National Foreign Language Week in the spring, and
have a showcase with international displays that change monthly. We also
sponsored a poster contest during For. Lang. Week, with cash prizes.
Many of them are accompanying me to Spain and Portugal next summer. We
even went to Adventure World after school let out, and the kids had a
ball. All but one of these kids had never been to an amusement park
Angela Thomas (wears too many hats but wouldn't part with them)
Oxon Hill HS
Angie's Web Page -- http://members.aol.com/ladegodyva/angie.htm
96/07 From-> Shari Kaulig <KauligS@aol.com>
Our high school has a Spanish Club, a French Club, an International
Club, many ethnic clubs ("Latino Cultural Awareness", "Black Awareness",
"Jewish Culture", "Islamic Awareness") and also a separate human
The ethnic clubs, I feel, were a response to the forming of a Christian
club on campus (they do bible study at lunch) and my personal feeling is
that these clubs have been rather divisive.
The International Club does pull in all groups, and puts on a rather
spectacular International Week in the spring that includes dance and
music performances and a food fair. The Spanish Club is mostly attended
by students who are studying Spanish, and besides celebrating holidays
with food and music, they also do service projects, such as making food
baskets for needy Hispanic families in the area, and adopting a family
in Mexico. The French Club eats a lot - and they also attend
performances such as Cirque de Soleil whenever possible.
Our human relations group is outstanding. They sponsor weekly
multi-cultural retreats in which 30 students leave campus for the day
and talk about cultural similarities and differences. About 20 teachers
and 20 students on campus are trained facilitators, and these retreats
have been instrumental in improving racial harmony on our campus. The
middle schools are starting a similar group in September. The group also
started conflict mediation this past spring. Again, students were
trained as mediators, and students who fight are given the choice of 3
days suspension or 1 day suspension if they'll agree to go to mediation.
We're finding that as word spreads, the mediation process can be very
successful in diffusing tense situations so that the fights don't occur.
96/07 From-> Elsie M Szecsy <email@example.com>
I believe deeply that learning happens in a social context, and that
teacher too, needs the companionship of other similarly situated
colleagues so that she can continue to learn too. It's kind of tough to
accomplish this in the traditional language bounded structures that
language specific clubs engender.
I'm really happy that I'm not alone in this thinking. Perhaps it'll
advance a similar structure in my school too, when I return in
Jean W. LeLoup wrote:
>This is precisely what we used to do at Webster Groves HS in St. Louis,
>where I taught. We combined all language clubs (which were dying out at
>the time) into one and also included the AFS club (American Field Service).
>This was a much better arrangement and made sense to us--broadening
>language and cultural outlooks and taking good advantage of the presence
>of foreign exchange students (we also had the Rotary students and anyone
>from any other exchange program) their respective backgrounds. It became
>an International club of sorts, necessitated fewer faculty advisors so we
>could co-advise and take the pressure off individuals, etc. I don't know
>what they are doing these days--Cindy, Penny, Sue, can you fill us in please?
Elsie M Szecsy
96/09 From-> vaughn williams <firstname.lastname@example.org>
>>This will be our first year having both the Societe Honoraire de Francais
>>and the Spanish Honor Society. Looking for suggestions that you do during
>>the year with the students. When and how often do you have meetings? Do
>>the students do service for the school?
I am listing the list that I published in the Sociedad Honoraria
1. Collect toys for children at Christmas. (My chapter gives the toys
needy Spanish-speaking children in our elementary school and/or to a
social/service agency association associated with the Spanish-speaking
2. Collect food and clothes for needy families.
3. Host a candlelight induction ceremony
4. Host a Spanish Cafe and sell tickets. (My chapter has done this in
different ways, we have done it during the school day and sold to
teachers-once every grading period. We have also hosted it during the
evening and had it open to the community.)
5. Hosa a verbena
6. Prepare a scrapbook
7. Invite speakers to your meetings and/or induction ceremonies:
-Professors from the local colleges/universities
-Specialists/Consultants from the State Department of Education
-State President of AATSP
-SHH State Director
-Local celebrities and personalities
-Local celebrities and personalities (My chapter has had the hostess of
Latin Atlanta as our guest more than once)
-Mayor, Governor, and other public officials
-An advisor from another chapter
-Ambassador or Consul General of an Embassy or Consulate
8. Work in conjunction with an elementary, middle or high school (My
chapter co-sponsors an elementary school after school Spanish Club
9. Sponsor after-school/summer activities such as:
-Mini-camp or workshop for children, teaching Spanish and/or culture
10. Sponsor an autumn or spring carnival/festival/feria
11. Sponsor a restaurant for teachers serving food from Spanish-speaking
12. Sponsor a doughnut/churro/buñuelo sale
13. Adopt a Spanish-speaking child or grandparent
14. Have a Charlaton (Talk-a-thon in Spanish)
15. Work with Special Olympics
16. Present programs to elementary students and/or special education
students (My students have done their interpretations of Goldilocks and
the Three Bears, Little Red Riding Hood, The Three Little Pigs, Jack and
the Beanstalk, Cinderella, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, etc.)
17. Organize a retreat for the members of your chapter.
18. Have monthly tertulias or meriendas
-Have a planning session -Watch a movie
-Work on a project -Invite members from a nearby chapter
-Play games -Cook
-Have a dance session -Invite a speaker
-Write letters -Work on a web page
-Cook -Make crafts
-Host a casino/feria for first-year students or an elementary school
19. Have a fund-raiser
20. Host programs for the school, community, parents' association,
neighbor schools, etc.
-*How to Study a Foreign Language* -*Careers in Foreign
-Music Programs -Art programs
-Holiday celebrations -Literature programs
21. Volunteer language skills to local banks, police departments, churches,
parent conferences with Spanish-speaking ESOL/ESL/PEP students, etc.
22. Exhibit around the school
23. make a slide show presentation
24. Sponsor an essay contest
25. prepare a video
26. Promote language studies through radio spots
27. Publish pamphlets and/or brochures
28. Submit articles to the newspaper (school and local)
29. Host a dinner
30. Begin a scholarship fund
31. Work in conjunction with local organizations (business, education,
etc.) on a special project
32. Join the Chamber of Commerce
33. Take out an ad in the yearbook
34. Sponsor a quiz bowl (certamen)
35. Publish a regular newspaper
36. Attend a college day
37. Host a Foreign Language Festival
38. Host or participate in a Crafts Fair
40. Become pen pals with members of another chapter
41. Become pen pals with students in other countries
42. Set up a Speakers Bureau
43. Enter school and local contests
44. host study sessions before big examinations
45. Start a breakfast club for students who want to practice speaking
Spanish. (MY chapter did it once a week-mostly at Shoneys although we
did have a couple parents cook for us and we did eat at a few other restaurants)
46. Participate in Homecoming activities
47. Establish a homework hotline
48. Make group presentations
49. Start a vertical file, an archive, or a reference center with
articles pertaining to the language or culture
50. Write a proclamation and have it proclaimed by the mayor, Board
Education, City Council, etc.
51. Set up a suggestion box and respond to the suggestions
52. Have a carnival
53. Host a quinceañera
54. Purchase an acre of rain forest
55. Host or participated in a total Immersion Day/Weekend
56. Host a piñata contest
57. Install officers
60. Become secret pals
61. Have a dress-up day and wear typical outfits from Spanish-speaking
62. Sponsor a "Phone a Friend"
63. Design T-shirts and/or buttons
64. Have a "cocktail party" with non-alcoholic beverages and tapas.
students are to use the language as they socialize
65. Present a skit or one-act play
67. Participate in a Parliamentary Drill
68. Host a leadership workshop
69. Sponsor a Velada musical
70. Go on a Gira campestre
71. Host a sarao
72. Recognize high achievers of the language with bulletin board
features, certificates, or an Achievement Program
73. Volunteer at a state AATSP or FLA meeting
74. Create a chapter web site/web pages
75. Go on excursions
76. Submit art and prose to ¡ALBRICIAS!
77. Sponsor salutes to the Hispanic World
78. Submit to the school's literary magazine
79. Publish a Spanish literary magazine
80. Make an ofrenda in honor of Día de los Muertos (My chapter
constructing one paying tribute to Alfonsina Storni -the name of our
chapter- it will be on display at the Atlanta History Center/Mexican
Cultural Center's Day of the Dead celebrations and exhibit)
81. Host some type of show for senior citizens in local nursing homes
82. Host contests
83. Volunteer with Habitats for Humanities
Respectfully submitted by Jean Carolyn Williams
96/09 From-> Viviane Levy <email@example.com>
>>I'm very frustrated as French club moderator. The kids don't come!
>>exciting activities out there? What works for you? I'm not French & have
>>never lived in France a long time, but I'd like to celebrate holidays but which
>>ones? with what activities? My students all seem so blase. Merci!
Anytime food is involved, kids will come. One of the activities that
work is a cooking activity. Have the kids sign up for it with ONE dollar
to be paid in advance. In the meantime, you worked out with the officers
a "menu" i.e. a complete luncheon menu or dinner menu; put each officer
in charge of one part of that meal. When the day of the activity comes,
each officer will be in charge of ONE station - they will prepare that
dish, cook or bake it - when all if done, all the kids who helped
prepare the meal, will sit down at a big table all set up and enjoy the
meal. This was done immediately after school and we have used the Home
Ed. room. Example of dishes cooked:
Salade nicoise, quiche aux champignons et oignons, fondue
bourguignone, diplomate, biscuits, mousse au chocolat, crepes.
This could be great publicity - take pictures, publish it in the local
paper and school newspaper.
- Another activity, around December could be to have a treasure hunt
easy one) and at the end, all the participants will enjoy some sort of
Holiday dessert (i.e. buche de noel)
- On January 6th, epiphanie (the 3 wise kings), you can bake "une
galette" with a bean inside, and when cut up, whoever has the bean is
the "king" for the day - this could be done in classes, depending on the
- Besides, food, the French Club usually goes on cultural outings,
usually twice a year - Because of the proximity to New York, we usually
go to B'way shows, such as "Les MIS", Phantom, Beauty and the Beast;
this Fall, even in New Jersey, the Paper Mill Playhouse is putting on
"Gigi", and later in the year the McCarter Theatre in Princeton will
perform in English "Le Jeu de l'amour et du Hasard" - I have also taken
students of the French Club to the opera Carmen - They all thoroughly
enjoyed - usually, it was their first experiences at an opera house - By
the way, all those seats were only $15.00.
- Other generous and humanitarian things the French Club could do: We
have collected money for Medecin-sans-Frontieres, to help the Rwanda
problem, we have collected warm clothes for homeless people, and this
year we are planning to work at a soup kitchen.
- I also forgot to mention, that you could have a Trivial Pursuit game
in French, ongoing, for several weeks to see which team will win.
- At Mardi Gras, you could make masks - kids love it - Just buy the
plain black mask, and bring in all kinds of sparkles, "plumes", small
beads of different color, and decorate them.
- If you can invest in making your buttons machine, this also is great;
not only kids love it, but you could also sell the buttons.
96/11a From-> Diana Kozlen <firstname.lastname@example.org>
>>Hello. I am a middle school teacher. Do you have suggestions for an
>>club which will meet for one hour a week, for about six weeks? Any books
>>or experience would be helpful. Thanks.
I am sponsor of the Spanish Club at the high school where I teach. I
think some of the activities would be appropriate no matter what age
level. Some of our activities include: watching a movie in Spanish. (I
have shown "The Lion King", Toy Story", "Harry and the Hendersons"). Of
course there is popcorn and soda to snack on. Some of the kids are into
We have made "God's eyes", tin foil ornaments with Spanish and Aztec
designs for Christmas, painted bark bookmarks (purchased through
Teacher's Discovery), Valentines in Spanish for Valentine's Day, and
lots more. We also make a pinata for Christmas along with singing carols
in Spanish. We go to a nursing home and sing in Spanish and English. One
of my former student's mom works there.
We also have a "game night" where we play games in Spanish. I have
Monopoly, Scrabble, Scattagories, and Trivial Pursuit in Spanish. These
are just a few things that we have done over the course of years I have
been sponsor. Hope you get some ideas that may work.
96/11 From-> Jose Sendra <jsendra@SPRYNET.COM>
1. Play trivial pursuit. Either get your language version, buy Teacher's
Discovery's version or make up the questions yourself.
2. Pass out simple recipe from cookbooks that you may have and have
cooking contest. Ie. I had students bake bizcocho. Simple to make and
fun to eat.
3. As the weather is getting colder, visit your local bodega. Casa
Grande in Bridgeport is great and buy authentic chocolate to have at a
4. Go rent any great foreign film. Preview for nudity, etc. Show
With popcorn of course.
5. Have a cafe day. Have students sign up to bring in food, others play
customers and have a mini immersion experience.
6. Have a treasure hunt. Make a list of common and not so common school
things and have students find them for you. I always put stuff on the
list I need! ;-) like lapices, bolis de mexico, la fecha de nacimiento
del senor__________, el color de la corbata del director. etc.
7. Hey why not macarena. I know many are sick of it, but the kids might
have fun with it.
8. Learn some songs. Go to a dollar store and buy plastic maracas and
teach them Maria Isabel and let them play the maracas during the
biribiri porompompom sectio
9. Go to the Yale Art Gallery, Great pre-colombian art and some picasso,
dali and miro
10. Do a virtual field trip to Spain, Mexico, etc
97/11 From-> Marge Mandl <email@example.com>
>>For the first time in several years, I have the opportunity to sponsor
>>club. We have a tiny French enrollment, and I hope to help it grow. Could you
>>please respond either to the list or to me off-line regarding your ideas for
>>successful projects, ideas, etc. for club meetings? We have not had a club in our
>>school for several years, so it will be nice to get a fresh start. Any ideas you have
>>will be greatly appreciated!
We have had a very successful French Club at our high school for 12
years. Each year we have over 100 members and we do many activities.
I've listed some of them for you:
1. Each year we have an entry in the homecoming parade. We center our
choice around the theme of the annual parade, For example this year the
theme was food. We mad a giant pot-au-feu and pretended to make stew out
of our opponents, The walkers all wore chef hats, we had balloons,
candy, etc. Last year the theme was travel so we built a giant Arc de
Triomphe. We won 1st place with that one!
2. We order French Club sweatshirts almost every year. Sometimes a
student or parent has designed our shirts but sometimes we choose a
shirt from a company. We wear them for our activities when appropriate.
3. We have "crepe fests" . We have many electric crepe makers that the
French club has purchased and we meet and make crepes and have sing-a-
longs (en français, certainement!) We use the foods room or a classroom
or a home.
4. At Christmas we go caroling and have a party at a member's home.
plan games such as family feud, pictionary, jeopardy, charades, etc. to
be played in French. We give prizes related to French such as pencils
and pins with French expressions, etc. When I go to France I always
stock up on prizes.
5. We sponsor at least one fundraiser each year and we charge $3.00
6. Our annual French Club dinner is a great event. A local Conference
center and hotel has a French chef and he prepares a wonderful French
dinner for our members each year. We have students prepare
entertainment, (cancan, songs, fairy tales, etc.) There are door prizes,
decorations, and a table competition for writing new French verse to
familiar French melodies. Each table comes up to the microphone to share
their prepared song. They do a great job, even the Fr I students. The
meal only costs $12.50. We've been doing this for 5 years and the price
has not gone up for a 7 course meal. I think it's a community service
type thing which we enjoy.
7. In the spring we go to a local park and have a picnic, play boules
and other games. We try to make the food at our activities all French
related, but sometimes it's not.
8. We go to plays and restaurants also. Les Mis is in Detroit this fall
so we are taking 90 students on December 4 to see it.
9. Sometimes we have in the past had a French film festival. Once a
month we would show a French film after school and have popcorn. Kids
get really busy and this one is hard to continue on a regular basis. It
was our attempt to show even more French films without having to take
more class time.
10. During Foreign Language Week we have tons of activities that we
This is getting mighty long. I'll be sharing our Foreign Language Week
activities on Sunday Nov 23 at ACTFL.
97/12 From-> Joanne Dinsmore de Lopez <firstname.lastname@example.org>
>>Hola! The French teacher and I are co-advisors of the International
Club at our
>>Middle School (grs. 5-8). We focus on world cultures and are in need of some new
>>and exciting activities. Past activities have included International Recipes, costumes
>>from around the world, some arts and crafts and coin collecting.
I used to teach at a New England boarding school. I also was advisor
the International Club there. It was quite vibrant. We "adopted" an
orphanage in Guatemala and did many fundraisers for their benefit. We
sold jewelry from the Que Importa company. Normally we did very well,
and on a couple of occasions I visited the orphanage then did a slide
presentation for the whole school to show them where their money had
We also did an International Day. This was a huge event and a planning
nightmare, but it was always worth it. We would get commitments from the
international students and other students who traveled extensively, had
a parent living abroad or whatever. We divided theses students into
geographical regions. Each region (embassy) had a faculty member
associated with it to make sure that things would get rolling early.
Last minute embassies were very weak. Most of those teachers either had
been to a country in the region, taught about them, or simply had an
interest in helping out. We, of course, pulled mostly from language
teachers and history teachers. Interestingly the art teachers were
always very enthusiastic as well.
We divided the school into groups of some 30 students led by 2 student
prefects per group and 1 to 2 teachers per group. Each group was given a
map of the regions which they would visit. Each student was given a
"passport" that was stamped at each embassy for attendance purposes. I
believe the visits were for 40 minutes with 10 minutes of travelling
time, as the embassies were in different buildings.
The embassy leaders came up with excellent ideas to present their
countries: Japanese tea ceremony, slide shows, explanations of the art
of bullfighting, Phillipine dances, Noche de Muertos altars and
explanations, African tribal rituals. I could go on and on.
The day was always complemented by other activities at the all-school
meeting prior to the embassies or the evening before. We had slide shows
of the world coordinated with international music (a pain to put
together, but always wonderful in the end), speakers, music (Sol y
Canto, Samite of Uganda) and dance (the African troupe from Wesleyan
College). The cafeteria always outdid itself with a huge international
Obviously there was always a lot of negotiation, as the day was really
pretty expensive to put on. We didn't always get all the money we wanted
to do everything, but it was always a very worthwhile experience. It
also helped the American students to see their international classmates
in a different light.
>We are looking for ideas or sources of ideas. Also, if you know of
>organizations (non e-mail), we would welcome that information.
Universidad Vasco de Quiroga / Instituto Baden-Powell Morelia,
Ideas for FL Club and International
Clubs came from:
|Susan Campbell||Diane Colozzi||Joanne Dinsmore de Lopez|
|Marie Dzielak||Bob Hall||Sandra R. Howard|
|Shari Kaulig||Diana Kozlen||Barbara Law|
|Jean LeLoup||Viviane Levy||Marge Mandl|
|Elsie M Szecsy||Jose Sendra||Angela Thomas|
|George Watson||Patt Webb||Jean Carolyn Williams|
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