University of Kansas
School of Education
Foreign Language Education
Teaching and Leadership 815

“Teaching English as a Second Language/Bilingual Education”

Line Number: 88552

Regents Center/Edwards Campus
4:10 - 7:00 p.m.
January 21 - May 13, 2003

Instructor:     Dr. Paul A. García
      426 J. R. Pearson Hall
    Telephone:  816-523-1939 or 785-864-7047
    Office Hours: By Appointment

Descriptor:  “Teaching English as a Second Language/Bilingual Education”
   An overview of research and curriculum-related activities and strategies in the topic areas.  Students will examine methods and techniques of teaching,     including content-based and content-enriched instruction; proficiency, assessment, and evaluation of teaching and materials.  The course will also
   use the national ESL Standards as a basis for the development of authentic materials and the employment of appropriate teaching strategies.  This required
   course, as approved by School of Education faculty, meets one or more of  the standards for accreditation (NCATE) and program approval (KSDE)     as stated below.  Students successfully completing this course will be prepared to meet the competencies associated with the licensure standards     herein addressed.

Required Texts:
   TESOL.  ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students.  TESOL:  Alexandria (VA),     1997.
   Oxford, R. L.  Language Learning Strategies.  Boston:  Heinle & Heinle, 1990.

   Hernández, H.  Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms.  New York:  Merrill/Pren-
     tice-Hall/Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Course Goals & Outcomes:

  Students familiar with a variety of approaches to language arts/subject area teaching will    consider the national standards frameworks as organizing principles for utilizing effective    instructional strategies.  They will develop skills in curriculum development tasks as they    create units and lessons that promote successful language learning in K-12 classrooms.

Endorsement-Related Outcomes--State Board Regulations

  This course addresses the following competencies as required for Teaching English as a Second Language, SBR 91-1-92, section (c).

  Knowledge of present-day objectives of the teaching of English as a second language and of the methods and techniques for attaining these objectives.

  Knowledge of specialized techniques and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching materials, procedures and curricula, as well as the professional literature regarding the topic.

  This course addresses the following competencies as required for Bilingual-Multicultural Education SBR 91-1-85, section (c).
  The ability to adapt existing materials to the needs of bilingual-multicultural programs.

  The ability to relate successfully to students, parents, and community members of the appropriate cultural group.

  Knowledge of teaching methods and diagnostic and prescriptive activities which are appropriate for bilingual-multicultural education.

Course Requirements:    TWO copies of each submitted item are required.1  Due Dates:

 1. Readings from texts and/or supplementary materials     On-going
 2. Oral Presentations/demonstrations:  chapters from texts; songs, games2 On-going
 3. Two reaction papers (each 7-9 pages) from scholarly journals or books  Feb. 18
   (individual) on such topics as thematic units, culture, partner   April 8
   activities, standards
 4. One Thematic Unit (10-12 lessons) as group project (2-3 students).   May 13

   The unit is to include each of the below items:
   a. One Content-based/content-enriched lesson, small-group)
   b. One culturally-authentic song, didacticized
   c. One game, didacticized
   d. One Internet-based lesson
   e. Explanation/rationale for how the lessons consider the National Standards
   f. Daily development of language and culture skills, incl. remediation tips
   g. Integration of materials previously learned
   h. Adaptation and suitability for ELL students

1 Oral Presentation summaries are to be submitted in hard-copy (paper) form.  Two copies of each item are  required.
 A cover page will identify presenter, date, topic.  Paper copies or summaries of oral presentations are requested for each   class member (but not of reaction papers).  These should also have cover page information ,but do not need a separate   cover page.

 THE THEMATIC UNIT SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN TWO FORMATS, ELECTRONICALLY (on a CD)   AND ON PAPER.  (More information on dissemination of the units during the course.)

2 The date for the Sponge/Game/Song activities is Feb. 11.

Note:  Please advise me if you require additional accomodations.
Class Meetings & Tentative Schedule of Activities
(The schedule below may be amended during the semester.)

Session #: Meeting:  Topics:           Readings & Presentations:

 1 Jan. 21  Introduction; Course Requirements  -----        History, Political Issues, Standards

 2 Jan. 28  Standards, Sources & Resources ESL Standards, pp. 1-67;
    Immersion and Submersion

 3 Feb. 4  ESL Standards :  Vignettes, local ESL Standards, pp. 71-106;
    and national    Hernández, Ch. 1 and Appendix
4 Feb. 11 Sponges, Games, Cultural Songs  Standards, pp. 109-end;   Sponge/Game/Song items due
 5 Feb. 18 Standards and Content  Hernández, Ch. 2-3  Reaction Paper #1 due

 6 Feb. 25 Standards and Content   Hernández, Ch. 6-9; presentations

 7 March 4 Sheltered Instruction   presentations
 8 March 11 Strategies & Discussion of RP #1 Oxford, Ch. 1-3
 9 March 25 Teaching Content Areas:  Oxford,  Ch. 4-5, App. C, E, F;
    Literacy & Reading Development

 10 April 1  Teaching Content Areas:  Hernández, Ch. 10       Math, Science, Social Studies  Presentations

 11 April 8  Assessment Issues, discussion Reaction Paper #2 due

 12 April 15 Technology Matters   Presentations

 13 April 22 Groups Work on Thematic Unit No class meeting

 14 April 29 Groups Work on Thematic Unit No class meeting
 15 May 6  Thematic Units Presented
 16 May 13 Thematic Units Presented

Course Requirement Values:
   1. Readings, Class Discussions     16%
   2. Text, Article, Lesson Presentations   28
   3. 2 Reaction Papers      24
   4. Songs, Game, Sponge Activities     8
   5. Thematic Unit with all sections (see above list)            24

Teaching & Leadership 815

Format for Reaction Papers

1. A suggested format to follow for your reaction papers is as below.  This is a suggested format; parts may be changed to suit your needs.

 Cover Page:  Your Name, Teaching & Leadership 815, Date
 Bibliographical Information on the article, Reaction Paper Number (#1 or #2).
 For bibliographical information:
 Bibliographical Information must include the following information on the cover page:

 Author Name, Title of Article or Chapter, Editor of book if a compilation, followed by Title of
 book; then, Place of Publication, Name of Publisher, Date, and pages.  Here’s an example or two:

 García, P. A.  “Preface,”  Teaching Heritage Learners:  Voices from the Classroom.  John B. Webb & Barbara L. Miller, Eds. Yonkers:  American Council on
  the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 2000, 1-3.
 García, P. A.  “On Implementing an Elementary School Language Program:  Reflections &     Considerations,” in:  Myriam Met, ed. Critical Issues in Early Second      Language Learning, Chicago:  Addison-Wesley,1998, 213-248.

 Page 1:  Introductory paragraph or paragraphs, with information regarding the contents or thesis of the article.

 Pages 2-6:  Your detailed description of the contents or thesis and your point of view regarding the importance of this piece for methods of language instruction   or of the profession.

 Page 7-8:    Summary/Conclusion

2. Reaction papers must be from refereed journals, such as FL Annals, Modern Language Journal, TESOL Quarterly, etc., or from books (chapters or sections).  Articles from teacher magazines (3-5 or so pages in length are not acceptable for this assignment.  The section or article you read should be no less than 20-25 pages, no more than 35-40.  If you have a question about this, please see me.

3. Please write in English, so that other students and colleagues may read your work if they care to.

4. Please submit two copies of your work.  One, with grade and/or comments, will be returned to you.

To:   Teaching and Leadership 815 Students

From:   Dr. Paul A. García
Re:   Guidelines for Class on Sponges, Games, & Songs

1. Please note that the purpose of the class will be for each of us to present one activity that falls into each category of “Sponge” (or “Bell-ringer”), “Game” or “Song” to share (total of three), activities that are either teacher-created or commercially-prepared.

2. Let me first define the term “sponge” for those who are not familiar with its usage.  This is a very brief activity, usually of no more than 2-3 minutes’ duration (if that much) which is geared to “soak up” that last part of the class when you are “waiting for the bell to ring,” as it were, and you and/or your group need a quick “up-beat” note to end the class rather than simply let the class time melt away.  Hence the term “bell-ringer” is also in vogue.  Sponges can be used at any time during the class, of course, at the beginning, during the transition phase (as you get the equipment and materials ready for the next, larger activity), and at the end of class.  See the attached sheet as well.

3. Now, let us “standardize” how and what we are going to present to one another.

 A. How: The oral presentation may be either a description of the activity or its “try-out” using the class as pupils--the choice is yours.  What:  your choice of one
  or more of these, depending on clas time.  Can it be culturally-authentic?  Yes!  Can it not be culturally-authentic?  Yes!  (Which do you prefer....?)

 B. The oral presentation will be followed by the handout you create (20 copies needed) for the group, which you will distribute after your presentation.  It will be a 1-2    page handout that accompanies your remakrs.  The hand-out should contain useful    information, such as the following (this is not exhaustive, you may add more    information as you determine):
  1. Your Name
  2. Name of Activity: (such as “Sponge Activity on Colors”)
  3. Brief (75-100 words) Description of Activity:
  4. List of Materials Needed (if teacher-made), such as:  3 overheads, etc.
  5. Name of Company--Address, Telephone Number, etc., if item is
   commercially-prepared, such as:
        Teacher’s Discovery
       2741 Paldan Dr., Auburn Hills, MI 48326
       1-800-832-2437, Fax:  248-370-7212
  6. Procedure for Teacher to Follow to Implement the Activity
  7. What might be taught by using this activity?  (its function--support, segue)
  8. How might this item be followed up with other activities?
  9. How and which standards are touched upon by this activity?

 C. After each presentation, we will have time for 1-2 questions for clarification, etc.


Teaching and Leadership 815
Dr. Paul A. García

Sponge Activities

Characteristics of effective sponges:

 They are short, they provide practice, and have very little or no new material.  Students should be able to do the activity on their own, and have immediate
 responses.  An mnenomic device to remember the characteristics:

  S Short, intense, vivid activities providing
  P Practice of learned material students can do
  O On their own which accomodates
  N New arrivals or early finishers by keeping the
  G Group involved and by being designed to
  E Elicit immediate responses.

Types of Sponges:

  1. say to yourself
     4 characteristics of a hero, and be ready to share
     3 things you want your mom to do for you tomorrow

  2. say to a neighbor
     alternate naming objects in a room
     5 things you did yesterday

  3. say in chorus
     say the alphabet forwards, then backwards
     recite a poem
     count by fives from 405 to 500
     count by fives from 600 to 500 backwards

  4. write a brief response
     3 things you would say about the weather in July
     5 South American capital cities
     6 cities in Europe

  5. signal  “Using your fingers, show me the number of
     responses you can think of to “Ça va?”
     items you can buy in the vegetable section
     colors you can see in the two posters by the door
              (Source:  NE Conf. Newsletter 28, September, 1990, and own (minor) additions)

To:   T&L 815 Students

From:   Paul García

Re:   Some Guidelines on Thematic Unit Work

1.  It will be important to choose your partners (groups of two or three) for this work,     as will be discussed.

2.  The unit is worth 24% of the grade, as noted in the syllabus.

3.  Review the requirements of the thematic units.   The information below is taken from the course syllabus:

  One Thematic Unit (10-12 lessons) as group project (2-3).        The unit is to include at least one of each of the below items:
   a. One Content-based/content-enriched lesson, small-group)
   b. One culturally-authentic song, didacticized
   c. One game, didacticized
   d. One Internet-based lesson
   e. Explanation/rationale for how the lessons include National Standards multiple intelligences and learner strategies
   f. Daily development of language and culture skills, incl. remediation
   g. Integration of materials previously learned
   h. Adaptation and suitability for LEP students

4.  With regard to the number of copies, the second copy will be kept on reserve for others to review and possibly copy for potential use.  Team members should keep a copy for themselves, of course.  If practicable, the unit should be submitted in a looseleaf binder or other, similar receptacle.  Additionally, a CD of the unit is to be submitted.  These will be compiled and given to all class members.

5.  In order to provide each class member with a synopsis or summary of the individual thematic unit, I would like to request that each team     put together a 2-3 page item for distribution to all of us.  The synopsis of the thematic unit should contain information necessary for the reader to have a very     good idea about what your team proposes to accomplish within the scope of the unit.  You might consider the summary an introduction to the unit, the objectives,     etc., as you deem appropriate.

6.  Don’t forget:  be sure that your unit contains specific citations as to the National Standards, Strategies, and Multiple Intelligences that you have addressed.  Please do this throughout the entire unit, at appropriate places, such as the models from Iowa State do (the French/Spanish units) or as we will have discussed, for example, or when you state the individual lesson objectives.  It is also important that  both direct and indirect strategies, large-group and small-group work be present in the thematic unit.  (Again, presume that each lesson is about 30-45 minutes in length.)

7.  The following page (sample) will be a form that each student  completes during the presentation of each thematic unit by the groups, and submits to me at the end of class.


Thematic Unit Topic:   Name of Topic to be placed here

Presenters:    Names of Presenters will be placed here

 Directions: Use a “1 to 5” scale, with “5” being “excellent” and “1” being “not     applicable” or “unsatisfactory.”  Do not use “1/2 points;” do not circle     more than one number.

1. The presentation was clear and  5 4 3 2 1
 informative.  I understood the objectives.

2. It was evident that the presenters met  5 4 3 2 1
 and addressed all the requirements
 for the thematic unit.

3. Did the thematic unit, as presented,  5 4 3 2 1
 make appropriate use of multiple

4. Did the thematic unit, as presented,  5 4 3 2 1
 make appropriate use of the learning
 strategies discussed by  Oxford?

5. Which specific learning strategies did
 you see being used or discussed?  Give
 details, using reverse of sheet as needed.

6. Did the thematic unit, as presented,  5 4 3 2 1
 make it clear that the National ESL
 Standards played an important role
 in the formulation of the unit and its
 various activities?

7. The unit, as presented or with minor  5 4 3 2 1
 modifications appropriate to age-level,
 would be used by you for your students.

8. What suggestions (deletions/additions) would you make to improve the unit?

9. Please add any additional comments that reflect your reaction to this unit:

Consider asking yourself these questions about your teaching practices (an incomplete “Baker’s Dozen” for reflection)

1.  “Are my students using the language in class or am I?”  (aka “Who’s practicing English, French, German, or Spanish?”)

2.  “T o what extent?”

3.  “How does my work relate to the National Standards?”

4.  “What kinds of assessments do I employ to determine a student’s progress?

5.  “Is my teacher voice or teacher presence improving?”

6.  “Am I falling back on what research says happens--I am teaching the way I was taught in Grades 7-12?”

7.  “How do I reflect on what went right and what did not in my class?”

8.  “How is my management system doing--what might be improved?”

9.  “Am I--and are the students--on task for the entire class period--and how would I define that term to a daily visitor?”

10.  “To what extent do I actively engage the students in a variety of learning styles during a single classroom session?”

11.  “Do I teach learning strategies?”  “How?”  “Why?”  “Why not?”

12.  “What reactions do I have from feedback from a colleague?”

13.  “What two or three important aspects of my work do I need to let KU or the professional development department know that they need to help teachers      with more?”