Oral Participation in the Foreign Language Classroom

Synopsis prepared by Lee Risley
in Six Parts   [Menu]

Part #4. Rewards and Motivation

A. Is There a Negative Side to Giving Rewards for Participation?
B. Rewards Are OK, But There Is a Reasonable Limit and They Are Not Foolproof.
C. The Nature of Today's High School Student Cries Out For Rewards To Get Beyond Passivity.
D. Can Rewards Be Interpreted As Challenges To the Student?

A. Is There a Negative Side to Giving Rewards for Participation?

95/01 From-->   David Christian <DCHRISTI@NDSUVM1.BITNET>
Subject:        Rewarding participation

Though I realize that we want our students to do something other then
sit and listen to us, is rewarding participation in a way harming some
of our students? What if we have a student who isn't ready to
participate in class, yet shows they are learning? I have had my share
of students that are uncomfortable in speaking up, yet when working with
them one-on-one, they show that they can use the language. True, they
could learn more if they were willing to participate, or if they did,
but I think giving material rewards...be it grades or a chance to miss
an assignment...may be counter-productive, in effect a punishment to
those who are learning.

There is also the case where some students may have low self-esteem, who
may make a mistake and then instead of taking the correction in the way
it is meant may feel that the teacher is picking on them or calling them
stupid. We as teachers don't do this, but it may happen.
I'm not saying we shouldn't guide the students towards participation,
but that we do it in a way that is seen as non-threatening. I'm just
against the use of a material reward system to obtain this goal.

David Christian
Exp. Psyc./Instructor of Norwegian


95/01 From-->   Bill Heller   <BuckBuck11@aol.com>
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

I'll try to be tactful.

I just read David Christian's comment about students not feeling
"comfortable" in a setting where participation is rewarded. I have
fought this dragon before!

You learn to play the violin by playing the violin. You learn to shoot
foul shots by shooting foul shots. You learn to speak Spanish by
speaking Spanish.

Seems so logical, doesn't it? You cannot learn a foreign language by
sitting there as a passive spectator. You can't learn to land a plan by
reading a book about landing a plane. You can't learn to play the piano
by watching someone else play the piano.

So what if it isn't comfortable!?! I am convinced that all learning
involves risk at some level.

But what about their fragile self -esteem? Let's examine why their self
esteem is so fragile. Perhaps it's because they have never been
challenged to achieve anything worth having esteem about because they
might feel uncomfortable or possibly <gasp> fail.

Realistic, lasting, positive self esteem comes from real accomplishment,
not just from showing up for life. Foreign language classes can be
invaluable for transforming passive learners into active, involved,
interested and interested people. We teach public speaking skills,
etiquette, and countless other "life survival" and "workplace success"

There's no excuse for not participating. I bet if I statistically
compared participation grades to exam grades, there would be a
significant direct correlation.

The alternative of not rewarding participation reinforces the very
harmful dynamic that is present in many high school classes. Students,
especially girls, don't participate because they don't want to look
smart. In most classrooms, intelligence is hidden and there is a
conscious effort to show as little interest as possible. Apathy is
stylish among the young.

When I whip out my chart, or my faux pesetas, or participation cards,
students are held ACCOUNTABLE for their learning. (Instead of most
warped notions that suggest that somehow _I_ am accountable for _their_

IMHO, all classes should reward participation as objectively and
frequently as foreign language teachers.

Bill Heller


95/01 From-->   David Christian <DCHRISTI@VM1.NoDak.EDU>
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

Thank you for your response! I agree, learning is facilitated by the
doing process, much more so than by the passive. I would much rather
have a group of students that want to take those risks than sit there
like lumps of coal waiting to be shoveled into the furnace.

I also agree that students should be held accountable for their
education. We as teachers should be and are great resources of material,
and through our teaching we pass this on to our students. If we truly
care for our subject, and we have the personal and social skills to pull
it off, we can raise our students to levels they never thought they were
capable of achieving. At the moment, I have a developmental psyc lab
section that starts at 8 a.m., and it is a challenge for me to make sure
they aren't wasting an extra hour of sleep to be there. but I won't give
them credit for showing up, or participating.

Rewarding students for learning with extrinsic reinforces, IMHO, is
counter-productive, in any class room. What sort of message does it send
to students? When we are tots and are developing a skill such as
language or walking or whatever, or parents give us reinforcement
through praise and hugs and such, which can be viewed as a extrinsic
reinforcer, but how many give a child an actual physical reward for some
such accomplishment? And if these rewards are given to counteract
something else, such as so many stamps can buy a missed homework
assignment, what are we saying of the value of homework?

There are other ways to participate while learning a FL. TPR is a great
way of seeing if students understand. Writing assignments can be used to
evaluate idea integration. Having the group respond orally gives the
shy student a chance to practice oral skills, though it is not as good
as responding on ones own. And though they may be slower methods, the
student can still be held accountable for their education.

Rewards don't have to be extrinsic. Rewards don't have to be something
given to the student in front of the other students. Simple rewards as a
nod, smile, thumbs-up, an exclamation of joy in the target language, or
a kindly chuckle at the right moment work just as well.

I don't know. Maybe I just don't like the stimulus-response behavioral
ideas of physical rewards. And again, the above are my opinions.


95/01 From-->   Robert Ponterio PONTERIOR@snycorva.cortland.edu
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

>From David Christian:
>Rewards don't have to be extrinsic. Rewards don't have to be something given to
> the student in front of the other students. Simple rewards as a nod, smile,
>thumbs-up, an exclamation of joy in the target language, or a kindly chuckle at the
>right moment work just as well.
>I don't know. Maybe I just don't like the stimulus-response behavioral ideas of
 >physical rewards. And again, the above are my opinions.

I agree with David that Bill Heller's comments about "doing" are right
on target. But I tend to agree even more with Bill that whatever
technique gets the students participating is great. This is one of those
areas where the success of the technique might have more to do with how
comfortable the teacher feels in implementing it than with any absolute
theoretical basis. I would guess that while students might at first
participate for the reward, eventually the reward itself would function
more to raise the students' consciousness of the teacher's expectation
that they will participate. This probably turns the process into a
social interaction in which the teacher demonstrates approval rather
than a simple stimulus-response behavior, at least that is the
impression I get listening to the reports of our colleagues on this list
who have described their experiences.

I myself don't reward participation in this way, but it is a matter of
personal preference, not of philosophical position. My students do a LOT
of work in small groups and when I interact with an individual student,
generally to model what I expect them to do in their groups, I usually
select someone. The same happens when I decide to have them respond to
my questions or give answers in some other format; I select students at
random until everyone has answered. But I really don't think that this
is in any way superior to using a technique to encourage student
voluntary participation. Just as any method works best when the teacher
is enthusiastic, these techniques must work best when the teacher
believes in them. Our own personalities play a huge role in determining
what works best for us. Of course we can also pretend to have a
different personality if it will help students learn. I do that a lot,
since I am shy at heart but being shy won't work in the classroom.

If something works, use it. It doesn't matter who says it isn't supposed
to work. It's also interesting to experiment with other people's
techniques that might work better. But in the final analysis, what
counts is what works for me to get the students to use the language.

Bob  Ponterio

B. Rewards Are OK, But There Is a Reasonable Limit and They Are Not Foolproof

95/01 From-->   "Robert D. Peckham" <bobp@UTM.Edu>
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

I also grade for class oral participation, and I used to assign a daily
grade when I taught at West Point. I am convinced, however, that we
limit ourselves severely when we try to assign participation evaluations
on a daily basis. Yes, by all means, give'em a point for being there,
for attempting an answer to a question, and perhaps for using a sentence
instead of grunting a one-word response. But, life is too short to judge
the quality of student oral performance every day. I have not sensed
that it makes an enormous difference in the normal apathy of the
everyday student, and besides, it would make it impossible for me to
accomplish simple group work, let alone do real cooperative learning

Let's ask ourselves, are we really that interested in chronicling a
sequence of student performances? Is not the end result (the desired
proficiency or change in linguistic behavior) the only thing worth
noting in the sphere of oral evaluation? If this is so, there must be a
better way of keeping students regularly in touch with their progress.
Again I invoke the ACTFL's very sensible Articulation and Learning
Outcomes Framework (contact Claire Jackson in Brookline Schools). I
think we all realize that students do not learn at the same pace or in
the same way. If two students start at the same state of ignorance and
wind up with the same progress towards proficiency, does it really
matter which one had the highest number of good hair days? We might also
ask if daily oral participation grades will survive the information age.



95/02 From-->   "Robert D. Peckham" <bobp@UTM.Edu>
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

I have had some recent experiences with extremely shy students, who on a
unix-based "talk" program not only used the structures in French I did
not know they had mastered, but also informed me that they were too shy
to say anything in class? What does this all mean. In terms of
proficiency, I cannot rate these people using the ACTFL criteria, yet
this is clearly what is expected of us.


C. The Nature of Today's High School Student Cries Out For Rewards To Get Beyond Passivity.

95/01 From-->   Bill Heller      BuckBuck11@aol.com
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

Perhaps I am reading some of these responses incorrectly, but I sense
some disdain in some corners toward those who objectively grade

Here are some points to keep in mind.

1. Most people who have responded use participation as no more than 20%
of a total grade. Obviously other types of activities in speaking,
listening, reading and writing are conducted, evaluated and graded.

2. Unlike in the university setting, high school teachers can't just
arbitrarily give a grade. Unless you can show some objective
documentation, a parent will take you to the mat if their little darling
is not making psddinh. ("Obviously it's a personality conflict,"
according to many parents, "you just don't like my kid! They tell me
that you pick on them in class ...etc., etc...") Fortunately my
principal is not as spineless as most and I have learned the art and
science of CYA.

3. With high school students, if it isn't graded, it isn't important.
Period. They're too busy to be bothered with lofty self-actualized
notions of learning for learning's sake and the intrinsic motivation of
the joy of learning.

4. Its not like we beat the kids over the head with the clipboard or
participation cards 40 minutes a day 5 days a week. (Thank God, my
administrators haven't discovered block scheduling yet....a viscious
scheme concocted by guidance counselors to make their lives easier at
the expense of teachers and students!) It's only one technique of many
that we use. Some of the activities are motivating enough in themselves
to engage the kids.  It's the "nitty gritty practice and drill" stuff
that requires the carrot and/or stick approach.

5. I have enjoyed listening to other ideas, especially the one which
suggested using a timer for spontaneous conversation. That's pretty

6. Once again, I repeat, given the choice, most average high school
students, who haven't reached Maslow's highest level of
self-actualization will be spectators rather than active participants in
life in general and in Spanish class in particular. At the beginning
levels, they need to be convinced that participation is crucial to
success in learning the language.

They often don't believe you. You make them participate and practice on
a daily basis, and soon, lo and behold, the kids begin to realize that
they can speak and respond and that, wonder of wonders, it gives them an
authentic sense of self esteem born of real accomplishment. They have
confidence speaking in front of the class, a challenge that they never
would have accepted if not given a strong nudge (sort of like birdies
from the nest) I find that I have to use participation far less after
level II. By Level III, most kids aren't shy to participate. However, so
many things compete for their time at that age that if you don't hold
them accountable, they simply won't prepare for class. Other subjects
and activities will squeeze out foreign language practice from the
students after school hours.

Bill Heller

95/08 From-->   Marc Brune mbrune@hq.jcic.org
Subject:        Re: participation

For several years now I have used a rather bizarre, but for me
successful method of encouraging and grading oral participation. It is
quite simple to use. Here it is:

I have a self inking stamp that says "Das war prima!". At the beginning
of each quarter, I give each student a "stamp sheet" which s/he must
bring to class every day. Students receive stamps for various reasons,
which can be explained to them when they receive the stamp sheets.

Reasons for receiving stamps:

1. Using the L2 they have learned in a meaningful situation.
2. Getting the "secret words" As determined by the teacher prior to class.
3. During student created drills to practice various aspects of the language.

Here, a couple of examples: Students are learning the names of the
German states and also and expression such as Ich fliege nach.. , Ich
wohne in..., or ich bin aus...(I'm flying to, Ich live in.. or I'm
from..). Students create their own drill: Ich bin aus...+ state. Each
volunteer receives a stamp. The one who hits the "secret word" gets an
extra stamp.

Students are learning to conjugate verbs. Teacher picks a secret word
(subject pronoun) and students create sentences until one hits the
"secret word". These exercises tend to move very quickly and really do
encourage the vast majority of the class to participate.

What about grading? Each stamp sheet is worth 100 points. Students must
get 40 stamps to receive 100 points over a period of 9 weeks (in a 45
minute class situation). Students who choose not to participate will
still receive 60 points (a D-) provided they attend class regularly,
bring materials to class, and otherwise cooperate.

I use stamp sheets in 1st and 2nd year classes. Naturally, as the class
progresses, they need to do more in order to receive a stamp.

Marc Brune


95/08 From-->   Kornreich <74362.1451@compuserve.com>
Subject:        Motivation and participation

I would like ideas from anyone who might care to share them about
assessing classroom participation and about motivating students to want
to participate. I like the self-assessment form that I found on
yesterday's posting, and I did copy it. But I always like to have many
ideas and be able to choose from them.

As for the motivation issue, it took me an entire year to realize that I
alone could not motivate those students to learn Spanish. Most of that
motivation had to come from inside them, and I was dealing with a group
of students whose only motivation was to get to the mall after school,
or go cruising in their new cars on the weekend. They felt no
responsibility for their own success in my class or in any other, and to
say that the teacher can "empower" such students is a real blow to me. I
did everything I could to take various learning styles into
consideration and allow students independent decision making power in my
class. All I got were a bunch of blank stares. I would love to know how
other, more experienced teachers have dealt with this problem.

Leslie Kornreich


Subject:        Re: Motivation and participation

Like Leslie Kornreich I felt overpowered trying to empower students.
True, they have the mall and their cars on their minds. They also fear
sounding foolish when they try the foreign language. Never mind the ones
with REAL problems and baggage that they bring along to class.

I made participation a component of their grade. Most of them seem to
care enough about the grade to get motivated because of that. I have a
grid with all their names down the left side and little squares to the
right, just like a gradebook setup. I make a tally mark in the little
daily squares when a student volunteers a response or comment. The
response need not be 100% accurate, but must be a serious response. I
assign a weekly grade based on the number of daily tally marks. You'll
probably want to try this for a week or so to see how many marks are
earned before assigning a grading scheme.

This worked like magic for me. After starting this system three years
ago, students who had never spoken were eagerly raising their hands.
It's not a perfect system and is rough on shy kids, but it's the best
I've been able to come up with.

Mike Watson

95/08 From-->   Margaret Beauvois <beauvois@utkvx.utk.edu>
Subject:        Re: Motivation and participation

Re. your question on motivation and participation:

Although it is not always feasible, a trip to the computer lab has a
motivating effect on many students. We use the software: Systeme D,
Atajo,(and do vocabulary/writing exercises), Hyperglot for pronunciation
exercises, and Daedalus for synchronous real-time "conversation"
on-line. The students all seem to enjoy these activities and look
forward to going to the lab. Also E-mail access at the university level
allows the teacher to have target language conversations with students
on a one to one basis -- and students to communicate with one another
outside of class -- in the latter instance, unless you structure the
activity, the students would be more likely to use English with one
another. However, I've had good luck with students participating in
these e-mail communications since the language is "real". It also seems
to make them feel more connected to the process of learning a language.

Margaret Beauvois


95/08 From-->   Marc Brune <mbrune@hq.jcic.org>
Subject:        Re: Motivation and participation

>Hi Fritz Secret Word Guy....Just how does that secret word work?

I use it in conjunction with my "stamp sheets". Each student receives a
stamp sheet at the beginning of the quarter. They try to get as many
stamps as they can in the grading period. The way I do it is: any
student that gets 40 stamps in 9 weeks (using a non-block schedule of
45-50 minute classes) receives 100%. Anything over that is considered
extra credit. (I grade on a point system. All work done by the students
receives points. About 20% is for the stamp sheet, 50% for quizzes and
tests, and the rest for homework, projects, etc. As I mentioned before,
I "give" each student 60 points on the stamp sheet in advance for doing
what s/he is supposed to do: bring text books, wkbks, arrive on time,
etc.) The students always have their sheets with them so they can be
stamped whenever they do something that I have announced is worth a
stamp. For example, when doing drills from the book I might roll dice to
see who gets a stamp. (#2 on the dice=#2 in an exercise set) Or, I
challenge someone to do a certain number of exercises correctly in a
timed situation. The secret word is simply a word I pick that everyone
in the class knows. The first person that says the word gets a stamp. If
I have native-speaking guests in the class, I might ask the class to ask
them questions. The secret word might be "name" or "old" or "where". I
try to pick words I think the kids will use. A word of caution: If you
want to use a stamp sheet as I do, be prepared to be running around the
classroom a lot.

I should mention that I got this idea from Spectrum, the Oregon
newsletter for FL teachers. It was originally submitted by Rosemarie
Maurer, a German teacher in Salem.

Yes, I make the stamp sheets myself. At the top I write that I am give
each student 60 points at the beginning of the quarter for doing what is
expected. Under that I begin four columns of 10 numbers each 61-70,
71-80, etc. Under that I add space for 8 extra credit points. If
students fill those up, I simply give them a new stamp sheet and tell
them that it's for the next quarter. At the end of the semester, there
may be a few very active students that have 30 or 40 points extra
credit. It's great for motivated students who lack writing skills.

If you try the idea, I'd like to hear from you how it works. I see it as
half grading system, half game.

I also teach the kids certain expressions in German/French that they can
say in order to get a stamp. These expressions must be used in an
appropriate situation to earn a stamp. For example, I teach "I wanted to
say that!" or S/He's a lucky dog" or some other slang expression. The
first person of the day to use one of them gets the stamp. Sorry, no
repeats on the same day, but I try to give them a lot so after a while
they have enough that everyone in the class has a chance. Some other
examples: S/He's cheating...S/He's always lucky...It was/is my
turn...the possibilities are endless.



97/03 From-->   Debby Eli <SKANNYBART@aol.com>
Subject:        Participation/TL teaching

This year is the first year that I've used participation points and wow!
what a difference! The students seem more focused than before. I also
use xeroxed copies of a seating chart and make a slash mark each time a
student volunteers an answer, starts a game, reads, or participates in a
group game (extra pts to the winners). I was really searching this
grading period for points, so I also gave them if they watched videos
that were pertinent to the lesson! Each week levels 2+3 need to get 5*
pts (they're required 50 per 9 wks). I started level 1 second semester
in participation pts with a goal of 30. The participation grade is worth
a quarter of their grade. It's true-many of the smart ones won't
participate, so I make sure I call on them (and some are just too shy).
I also use the points to modify behavior. How can you be participating
in class if you're sleeping, doing other work, etc.
What I do is give them a "0" which cancels out a point.
This year I also went to Spanish only in levels 2+3. I agree, it should
be that way in 3--but I never stuck to it. I am fortunate to have a
bright group of kids in level 2 to experiment with. It is very
challenging to me to simplify the vocab.and there have been times when
I've asked øen inglÈs, por favor? and they come back øpor quÈ?! I have
found them talking to each other in Spanish even when we're done w/class
and they are permitted to speak Eng., and parents have come in and said
" My child only speaks Span w/her friends..." They are very proud to
boast they are in a class that is not conducted in English and they
understand--they are permitted at any time to speak Eng, but they need
to ask permission first. This is also where I use part. points. If I
slip and speak in English, everyone gets a point. My challenge will be
with next year's level 2--from what I see, next year may be a very quiet

Debby Eli


96/03 From-->   Andrea Merrifield <Andrea_Merrifield@sad6.k12.me.us>
Subject:        Re: grading and participation

I teach an exploratory class in a middle school, but I think you could
modify this for high school. I give my student a paper each week. It has
the days of the week marked off and has three columns for each day. In
the first column they write the answer to a daily warm-up activity I have
on the board when they come in. In the middle column they write whatever
the homework assignment is. On days when the homework is due, I go
around the room quickly while they're doing their warm-up and put a
rubber stamp in the third column if the homework has been done with a
reasonable amount of care. On Fridays I collect the sheets and give them
5 points for the warm-up side and 5 for the homework side. This is their
homework grade for the week. To encourage participation, I take
construction paper, mark it out in small strips (1/2" x 2" approx.), put
a rubber stamp print on each strip (to keep them honest), laminate the
page and then cut out the strips. I hand these out in class for
participation, using the language, bringing in cultural material,
helping me out with an activity etc. Instead of points I give
"wonderful" prizes when they have collected 5 of them. I buy the prize
baskets from Discovery , sale items from Oriental Trading, pencils,
stickers, language rulers etc. Of course, you could give extra credit
points instead.

Andrea Merrifield


97/12    From-->        Kristine Conlon <kmconlon@muscanet.com>
Subject:        Froehliche Weihnachten

I'll probably think of more, but a couple of things for now--

Whoever contributed the idea of free pizza for using the target language
for so many points a day-- it's been wonderful watching the kids figure
that one out. I'd been punishing them for English: detentions, minus
points, etc. We had our pizza a while ago, and we've almost got enough
points for another day where they get to determine the activity. New
rules? If I, the Frau, speak English in the German Zone, they get points
back that they have lost. If a non-German student or an adult comes in
the room and speaks English, they get points back. This does not count
if they coerce their friends to drop by and pretend it's by accident.
They seem relieved that speaking German is no longer a teacher-pleasing
activity, but one that they control.

Please don't flame me by writing that we shouldn't have to "bribe" kids
to learn unless you 1. have seniority and don't need to worry about
getting a high enrollment, 2. aren't competing against Spanish in an
area with a high Spanish-speaking population, 3. aren't double certified
and don't get assigned whatever is left over in the English department
if you don't have lots of kids re-up. I have wonderful, successful
students, but I need a lot of them, and for certain political reasons in
my school, they really have to enjoy learning under my tutelage. They
have to look happy, and they also have to test well when they get to

Great idea. Plus I got all sorts of brownie points with the boss, who
stopped in just to speak English on purpose to the delight of the 4th

Kristine Conlon

D. Can Rewards Be Interpreted As Challenges To the Student?

95/01 From-->   Kimberly Secrist           SECRISKS@ctrvax.Vanderbilt.Edu
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

I have been actively watching the discussion about grading
participation, and thought that my comments might add something now.
Bill Heller's message was quite accurate. I agree with his assessment of
the situation.

I am a college student studying Spanish, and perhaps heading on to teach
Spanish in the future. I wouldn't be here if it weren't for the oral
points I had to earn in my high school Spanish classes. Our system was
like a system someone else recently mentioned. We earned oral points by
answering questions in class based on our homework or oral exercises,
etc. At the end of the semester, our teacher calculated an average for
the points and gave a grade that figured in our final grade. (I don't
know what percentage it counted for) We worked hard to get those oral
points. It encouraged spoken Spanish in our classroom.

Why was this so important? After two years of high school Spanish, I
decided to go to Spain for 6 weeks. I think the only way I survived in a
family I now know is difficult to understand and to communicate with was
to have spoken and heard so much Spanish. My six weeks went well, and I
came to college at Vanderbilt to study Spanish. I came in to college
further ahead, and I have advanced even more, so that as a senior I feel
quite competent in the language. I know that I am not an ordinary
student, however participation makes a big difference. Those who tried
hard in my high school class and spoke out even if they weren't sure of
the answer did well, not only on exams, but in their spoken language.
Those who didn't speak much didn't even go on to Spanish II or any class
in college. The only thing I would change is to make participation a
larger part of the grade than it was in our class.

Students must be challenged in all areas of their lives if they are
going to grow. The best teachers I ever had challenged me, but were also
there to help. They pushed me further than I thought I could go, they
made me think. But when all else failed I could always get help. In the
meantime they also motivated me to be who I am. I don't take the easy
way out anymore. I think self- esteem is helped by these challenges, as
long as the teachers back it up with the encouragement the students
need. Sometimes students need to fail before they realize that they can
be better or before they find the motivation to change. Thank you, Mr.
Heller, for an excellent letter.

Kimberly Secrist


95/02 From-->   Ania Lian ania@cltr.uq.oz.au
Subject:        Re: Rewarding participation

I think two things:
a) the word "shy" in this context does not really refer to shyness but
to different types of personalities and the difficulty of the teacher to
trace their progress and to be there for all of them.

The word "different" however does not refer to "different" than other
students but "different" to what is from students expected. If we expect
them to achieve and to realise that they are achieving then we have to
create conditions in which they can learn and perform. If we however
really want them to say that dialogue at the butcher which we have been
teaching them for the last two weeks, we disregard their processing
strategies and do not create a context for neither learning nor

An example of such a context for highschool students culd be to create a
day on French TV with ads, news, money games that French play. This
would give all students time and place to learn and perform.

Another project could be to create/video a day/week/month/year? of
French school life, etc ... These projects last longer than a lesson and
allow students to search for relevant information thus freeing the
teacher from the responsibility of working out for every student what
they should know. The problem will state the question.

b) overboard to meet students' needs? I think that we have not even
started, most of the time. What do we do for our students to help them
in pronunciation (just an example). To repeat a thing million times is
not the way, as we all know. Migrants speak English for 20/40 years,
listen to it every day and the accents of many of them make them barely

What I really think is that the term "need" has at least as many
definitions as there are teachers.

Ania Lian


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