The year 1864 from the diary of Alonzo Clapp

Tuesday, April 18, 1864 - A windy cold morning. I slept on the cold, cold ground and took no cold.

Thursday, April 21, 1864 - Commenced drilling. Things look like moving. Companies have orders to keep 13 days rations on hand besides the three days in the hands of the men.

Friday, April 22, 1864 - Cool and pleasant.

Tuesday, May 3, 1864 - One year ago today, the 6th (corps) took Marye's Heights.
The 5th Corps is in motion. We are ordered to move at 4 tomorrow morning.
Just at dark I was detailed for picket. Spent the night on the picket line.

Wednesday, May 4, 1864 - Broke camp (at) 4 and moved at 7 Am. I returned from picket just in time to join the regiment. Gen. Shaler with 3500 men is train guard. Moved slowly and camped near Culpeper Mine Ford at 11 PM. Heard one cannon.

Thursday, May 5, 1864 - Moved at 3 PM . Crossed the river at Culpepper Mine Ford on pontoon bridges and stopped about 1-1/2 miles from the river in position to guard the train. Have heard considerable firing during the day and about sunset, the musketry was very heavy. No news.

Friday, May 6, 1864 - Moved at 12-1/2 Am and took position on the right about sunrise under sharp fire, about sunrise under sharp fire, about 9 AM. We had no supper and were the right, the 26 (?) Corps on (the) left fell back. We fell back a few feet & held our position. (In the) PM, the line was extended some.

About sunset, the rebs flanked us & got in the rear of our regiment. (The 4 (th) N.Y. H(eavy) A(rtillery) broke at the first fire. The regiments gave way in succession. We stood till the rebs were on three sides of us and the 10th Corps (?) broke from our left. Some 8 (?) regiments fell back in confusion, but rallied some and retook part of the ground and repulsed charges made by the rebs during the night.
Our reg. Lost 156 men killed, wounded & missing. We lost 9 officers. 6 were wounded & captured. My Co., (K), lost 11 men, one of which was killed.

Saturday, May 7, 1864 - At one o'clock we withdrew and took a new and stronger position. The rebs attacked our line to the right of us and were repulsed. We hoped that they would attack us. At 10 PM we started for Spottsylvania C(ourt) H(ouse).

Sunday, May 8, 1864 - Marched all night, slowly and till nearly 12 M., reached the front and were put into the front line and changed to different points during the day, but were not actively engaged, though formed for that purpose several times. At dark, we went towards the right at double quick and went into the work. With the 6th Maine, but the rebs did not attack. There has been considerable heavy fighting. We were under sharp shelling at times and had a few men wounded. We are all worn out having no rest since the 4th.

Monday, May 9, 1864 - Had quite a scare during the night. The rebs opened a sharp fire on our pickets about 10 PM and we got under arms quickly. Were relieved by 1st division, 5 Corps and we went to the left and lay in reserve under severe and close shelling part of the day. Many balls passed and fell around us. During the night, several attacks were made which interfered some with sleep.

Tuesday, May 10, 1864 - Orders were issued for an advance of our whole line at daybreak. The advance was not made, but thee was sharp skirmishing all the morning. At 11-1/2 AM, our forces charged and took an important point on the center. There was almost constant heavy firing till 4-1/2 PM during which time the point was captured 5 times, 3 by us & 2 by the rebs. They made a 6:30 PM, our line charged through their right center, carried it, but from want of support did not hold it. We took some prisoners. Our regiment spent the night in rifle pits on the left.

Wednesday, May 11, 1864 - Our regiment went on picket. Col. Dwight is sick and in Hospital. Our line as advanced under sharp fire. I lost 5 men wounded. Capt. Walpole is missing, which leaves me in command of the regiment. It rained most of the day. The right wing was relieved and I took it to the Brigade about midnight. (It) rained most of the night.

Thursday, May 12, 1864 - Rained heavily day & night. Moved with the right wing about 4 AM and soon went to the front. We got separated from the Brigade and went into the fight in a rifle pit. The fight was the most terrible that I ever knew. Our forces stormed and took their works which were the best I ever sew. The rebs retook a short piece of their work and held it all day, fighting in the most desperate manner.
We were in the midst of the hardest fighting. Some men fired 200 or 300 rounds. Went out of the fight about 4 PM, and rested in the rear. I am in command of the regiment.

Friday, May 13, 1864 - Rained most of the day & night. Went into the rifle pits where we fought yesterday and turned the works.
The Col. Came up (in the) AM which relieved me of the command of the reg(iment). The rebel dead lay in piles & rows, two, three & four deep in front of us. We occupied the same ground today. At dark, I was especially detailed to command the picket in our front. The rebs made 2 charges on our line but we held our ground, firing all night. The severest night of my service

Saturday, May 14, 1864 - Rained most of the night and I had a hard time. Were relieved at sunrise and found the Corps at the left. Rested till about 4 PM. The rebs charged (with?) a brigade and took most of two regimetns. Our division and some other troops formed to charge, moved through a stream 4 or 5 feet deep and the enemy had fallen back.
We went on picket. This is the 3rd night of the last four that I have been (on) the skirmish line under fire.

Sunday, May 15, 1864 - This is the first time in the last nine days that a minute has passed without hearing firing, and but a small portion of the time that we have not been under fire, and continually under arms. Advanced our skirmish line twice and one man was wounded in the foot. We had a sharp little fight. This is the 4th night of the last 5 that I have been on picket and am worm out.

Monday, May 16, 1864 - Were relieved from picket about 9 AM and went to the Brigade and rested for the day. Slept in a tent all night, being the first nights rest since we left camp.

Tuesday, May 17, 1864 - Remained quiet till dark, being the first 24 hours rest durin gthe campaign. Were not under fire till evening when picket shots fell amongst us. Have been under fire every day since the 6th.
Got under arms at dark & about 9-1/2 moved towards the right.

Wednesday, May 18, 1864 - Moved slowly all last night and arrived at our old position at the extreme right about daylight. The army made an attack. We were not engaged. The attack was not successful. About noon, started back for the left and arrived before dark where we started from in the morning.

Thursday, May 19, 1864 - Got under arms at 3 AM and moved before light to the front close to Spottsylvania C(ourt) H(ouse) to throw up entrenchments. Worked by detail all day and got up a good line of works.
This is the first day since the 6th that we have not been under fire. Got up tents and turned in & turned out & moved at 10 PM & moved to where there was severe fighting before dark. Ewell's Corp. got in our rear and attacked our train but were repulsed.

Friday, May 20, 1864 - Arrived at the scene of last night's attack about 1 AM. Our forces took from 500 to 1500 prisoners. We finished the entrenchments and remained all night being the second time that we have rested all night in the same place, and is the second day that we have not been under fire since the 6th.

Saturday, May 21, 1964 - Slept all night. Moved about 8 AM to the house on the hill. There has been sharp skirmish firing all day and some cannonading. There seems to be a general move of the army to the left. Our division is the rear guard of a grand move to the left. We started about 11-1/2 PM and moved off slowly along our line of works which are very strong. The rebs attacked us about sundown but got much the worst of it.

Sunday, May 22, 1864 - Marched slowly all night and till about 1 PM when we arrived at Ginneys (Guineys) Station where we got dinner. Marched at 6 PM and marched slowly till 11 PM. When we reached Madison (?) 12 miles west of Bowling Green and stopped for the night completely worn out.
Passed through a good farming country & saw more produce growing - mostly corn - than during the campaignn before.

Monday, May 23, 1864 - Warm. Marched at 8 Am. Went till noon and stopped till 4 PM. Then moved slowly with the train over some bad road, and got to the river about 12 midnight.
About 6 PM, the rebs opened on our forces that have crossed the river (North Anna) but were repulsed after a sharp fight, we taking some prisoners. We had a hard march. Thee was some fighting farther to the left.
Passed through a good farming country.

Tuesday, May 24, 1864 - Moved early and took position across the river in the front line. There was more or less skirmish firing all day and considerable cannonading away to our left. There was sharp skirmishing in our front. A heavy shower just at sundown.

Wednesday, May 25, 1864 - Moved early to the front. Crossed the V(irgini)a Central R.R. at Noels & went to Little river. Found the enemy on the other side. Changed position several times. Went up on the R.R. and tore up the track and burned the ties & spoilt the rails. We turned over the track to the length of a reg(iment) at a time. Threw up entrenchments during the night near Little Run.

Thursday, May 26, 1864 - Heavy shower in the morning. Were ordered to march at 4 AM. Moved at 7 AM. Passed Noels & went to Chesterfield station on the Fredericksburg & Richmond R.R., arriving at 1 PM. Drew one days rations and left at 8-1/2 PM and marched hard all night.

Friday, May 27, 1864 - Marched hard all last night and stopped about 6 for breakfast. Stopped about two hours. Crossed the Pamunky near Hanover town about 1 PM, a foot-sore, used-up set of men. Rested all night near the crossing, the 4th nights rest in the same place.

Saturday, May 28, 1864 - Moved two or three miles in the PM and rested for the night. The 5th nights rest of the campaign.

Sunday, May 29, 1864 - A beautiful morning, but we are all out of rations having eaten our last, last evening. This the first time during my term that I have ever been out of rations. Marched at 10-1/2 AM (1st Div.) on a reconnoisance toward Hanover C.H. Reb cavalry attacked our rear when about a mile from the C.H. Strong rebel lines were formed and we waited till morning.

Monday, May 30, 1864 - The rest of the Corps came up and we went back toward Richmond and stopped at the crossing of the Virginia Central R.R. & drew one days ration.

Tuesday, May 31, 1864 - Marched at daylight about 6 miles to the left and went to the front and dug rifle pits after dark until 2 in the morning.

Wednesday, June 1, 1864 - Marched at 2 AM & went to Coles (cold) Harbor. As soon as we arrived about 12 (noon), I went out in command of the skirmish line in front of our Brigade, 100 men. Soon after the line was formed, I advanced it, driving back the rebs, but they soon rallied and made our line hot. About 6 PM our Corps advanced in 5 lines. The 3rd Division carried two lines and captured a good many prisoners. Our Brigade went in and was badly cut up. Lt. (Francis M.) Wooster was killed & Lt. (Theodore L.) Poole was wounded (Poole survived to become a Director of the Onondaga Historical Association.)

Thursday, June 2, 1864 - Found the regiment about 2 AM & worked on pits under fire till daylight, when the rebs opened on us with art(illery) & musketry. We were in the front lines & under a severe cross fire. Our position was perfectly commanded (by the enemy fire) except in the bottom of the pits. Norman Garlock, one of the best of soldiers, was killed. Lt. Wooster was killed in the charge last evening.

Friday, June 3,1864 - Rained most of the night. At daylight, a line of battle passed over us and advanced. We followed, go only a short distance. The fire was most murderous and the line in our front threw up works. Lt. Marks was wounded. We cannot stand up and several men have been hit in the bottom of the pits. This duty is several men have been hit in the bottom of the pits. This duty is severe indeed, this being 12 days and 3 nights we have been under such a fire & at the front. There has been heavy fighting both at our right & left.

Saturday, June 4, 1864 - We are still under the incessant whiz of bullets with no prospect of relief. The dead in our front are still unburied as the reb fire is too severe for men to work under it. It is one month ago today since we broke camp & we have been under arms all the time & there have been but 3 or 4 days that we have not been under fire.

Sunday, June 5, 1864 - Still at or near the front. We were with arms in hand about a dozen times during the night, and the firing was continual. The skirmish and sharpshooters fire is more severe today than on any previous one. Our dead in front of our works are still unburied. The rebels have opened a cross artillery fire on us now.
Went to the rear (of) our line at 11 PM & rested near the house.

Monday, June 6, 1864 - Severe skirmishing along the line all day and heavy firing part of the day & night. Capt. Marchant's body was found during the night.
I am detailed to command a company of sharpshooters of our Brigade. The regiment went to the front at 10 PM. During the night, some of those wounded on the 1st were brought in having suffered terribly.

Tuesday, June 7, 1864 - Pleasant. Sharp picket firing till 6 PM. Flags of truce went out & there was a cessation for two hours The dead were buried. The two op(p)osing armies arose & looked at each other & were surprised to find them so close together. The front lines are no more than 75 yds apart. This sudden & entire cessation of hostilities & an interchange of courtesies looks strange. The firing was not (re)commenced as by mutual consent.

Wednesday, June 8, 1864 - There was no firing today in our front. Our regiment was in the rear line, the 82nd Ps., in the front

Thursday, June 9, 1864 - Our regiment went to the front in the evening.

Friday, June 10, 1864 - Our regiment lay in the front line all day. No one was hurt. Some cannonading.

Saturday, June 11, 1864 - The regiment lay in the second line of pits. No one was hurt. It looks some like leaving these works. I was sick during the night. Have not yet got arms for my company of s(harp) s(hooters).

Sunday, June 12, 1864 - Pleasant. Could not get around much. The company of sharpshooters was disbanded. As soon as it was dark, a movement to the left was commenced.
Tattoo was beaten (on drums, not blown on bugles) in more regiments than on any other evening & all the bands played. Many of the works in rear were leveled. The 82nd Pa. Were left in our front line.

Monday, June 13, 1864 - Marched hard all day. Passed Providence Church & ______ Church. Crossed the Chickahominy at Jones (?) Bridge about 5 PM and camp near in the front line of battle.
Marched across the country in all directions & on & across many roads & much in fields.

Tuesday, June 14, 1864 - Marched at 7 AM. Went to or near Charles City C.H. & bivouacked. Burnside's (9th Corps) passed later PM. We enjoyed our 6th night(s) rest during the campaign.

Wednesday, June 15, 1864 - Moved about 11 Am. A mile or so eastward and threw up works to protect the crossing. Saw the mistletoe for the first time. I am not feeling well.

Thursday, June 16, 1864 - Moved PM to near the landing & lay close to the remains of the monster oak under which Pocahontas saved the life of Capt. Smith. The tree is __ feet in circumference. There is an enclosure of brick. About 10 PM took transports and went to Bermuda Hundred. I suffered severely from cholic, fever, etc. & could not possibly march and lay down on the bank of the river & lay till morning.

Friday, June 17, 1864 - Had a hard night last night. Went on to the "Matilda", a hospital boat & found good quarters and good care. Feel some better but am hard up.
Troops arrive all day, & towards evening they went both ways, The river is wide here and is full of transports. Some of them are lying still.

Saturday, June 18, 1864 - A fine morning. I had a restless, wild night. There is fighting most of the afternoon. We hear many rumors, but nothing definite. I hope to get back to the regiment in a day or two.

Sunday, June 19, 1864 - A beautiful day. I am in bad condition and do not seem to improve. Do not have any fighting.

Monday, June 20, 1864 - A fine day. I had an unpleasant day. Suffered considerable pain in my legs limbs & back & am otherwise out of order.

Tuesday, June 21, 1864 - Another fine day. There is a report that a reb. Ram came out and attacked the monitors - I guess not, though I heard heavy guns in that direction. Generally quiet along the line. I felt well in the morning, but had a hard PM & night.

Wednesday, June 22, 1864 - A lovely day. Three long 4-1/2 guns & one large Parrott were taken from boats & went to the front today. Heard heavy firing during the night.

Thursday, June 23, 1864 - The warmest day of the season. Suffered severe pain in my back and limbs.

Friday, June 24, 1864 - Warm. Nothing new.

Saturday, June 25,1864 - Very Warm. I am much better except (for) my lameness & pain in my limbs.

Sunday, June 26, 1864 - Hot. Dr. Pratt, Surgeon in charge of the boat proposes to send me to Chesapeake General Hospital. I think I will be able to join my regiment so soon that it is not best to go.

Monday, June 27, 1864 - Warm, but pleasant breeze. Went to Point of Rocks & suffered severely from being on my feet. Dr. Pratt consents not to send me to a General Hospital and thinks I may better not go to the reg't for a few days.

Tuesday, June 28, 1864 - Cooler. I am much better.

Wednesday, June 29, 1864 - Warm. Started to find the regiment. Went to City Point, took the R.R. about 4 miles & then marched by Petersburg and stopped with surgeons of 4th Division, 5th Corps.

Thursday, June 30, 1864 - Went on and found Brigade camp. The Corps has gone on a R.R. raid on the P(etersburg) & Weldon road. Head Quarters were ordered up about 9 PM & we found the Brigade after 4 miles more, about 12 midnight.

Friday, July 1, 1864 - Lay all day in the field in the dust. Warm.

Saturday, July 2, 1864 - Moved about 5 AM towards Petersburg & went into camp behind works.

(List of Officers of the Army of the Potomac)

Brigade Corps
Graham Keyes
Wessells Franklin
Abricombie (Abercrombie?) Smith
Chochrane (Cochrane?) Sedgewick
Shaler Wright

Division Generals
Buell Terry Mcllellan
Keyes Wright Burnside
Couch Russell Hooker
Devens Meade
Newton Grant

Wednesday, July 6, 1864 - Received orders breaking up the old Brigade & the officers had a sort of reunion at Brigade H.Q.

Thursday, July 7, 1864 - Moved at 5 AM and found the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division of the 6th Corp. Am officer of the day.

Saturday, July 9, 1864 - Warm. Received orders in the evening to move at a moments notice and soon after to move in five minutes and moved about 11 PM. Marched all night.

Sunday, July 10, 1864 - Arrived at City Point about sunrise. Took transports & moved down the river.

Monday, July 11, 1864 - Arrived at Washington about noon. Lay in the stream a short time, then disembarked & marched out on 7th St. to Ft. Stevens & bivouacked for the night. The march was a very hot one and many men failed to get through. The rebs skirmish line is in sight of the Ft. & the skirmishing is lively.

July, 12, 1864 - Warm. Our Brigade relieved the 2d as skirmishers about 5 PM & advanced the line taking possession of several buildings. The rebs advanced a line of battle against our left. Our men being out of ammunition fell back a short distance, then advanced & retook the line & held it till we were relieved, losing 5 killed & 19 wounded. Capt. Cossett was wounded. 2 balls passed through my coat.

Wednesday, July 13, 1864 - Lay near Ft. Steven till noon. Then moved out, passed through Tennellytown & camped at Bull's Cross Roads on the same ground that our regiment occupied nearly two years ago. It was a hard march.

Thursday, July 14, 1864 - Marched at 4 AM. Marched all day & till 11 PM. Passed through Poolesville & went in support of cavalry & a section of artillery, 5 miles beyond Poolesville & back to Poolesville, making a very hard march. There was much straggling.

Friday, July 15, 1864 - Pleasant. Lay at Poolesville all day. The rest was truly appreciated.

Saturday, July 16, 1864 - Marched about 7 AM. Forded the Potomac at White's Ford. Passed through Leesburg & camped on the Winchester Pike about 8 miles from Leesburg, having marched some 12 miles. It is very dry. The rebs burned fields of Wheat & grass as they fell back.
Went on Picket & had command of the line.
(It would seem from this account that the rebels started the devastation of the Shenandoah Valley, but were no as thorough as the Union army was.)

Sunday, July 17, 1864 - Pleasant. Was relieved on picket at dusk. The 3d Division joined the Corps.

Monday, July 18, 1864 - Marched about 5-1/2 AM. Passed through Hamilton, Purcellville & through snickers Gap & halted about 11 PM in Winchester.
Our Brigade acted as train guard. I went off with 4 companies guerrilla hunting, but did not catch any. Hunter's troops had a fight.

Tuesday, July 19, 1864 - Lay at Snickers Gap. Had orders 2 or 3 times to get ready to move and as many times that we would remain.

Wednesday, July 20, 1864 - A shower. Moved in the morning towards Harper's Ferry (?) but turned before crossing the river & went out on the Winchester Pike, forded the Shenandoah & bivouacked about a mile from the river.
At 8 PM, started back, forded the river again, passed through Snickers Gap, Pennelville, Hamilton & to Leesburg before getting breakfast (&a) drink of water at 8 AM of Thursday. Had a smart shower, the first rain since the forepart of June.

Thursday, July 21, 1864 - Marched all night & halted at Leesburg soon after 9 AM for breakfast. Crossed Goose Creek and halted for the night having marched some 23 or 24 miles.
Found that the rain did not reach Leesburg. Found it very dry today. Find blackberries very plenty.

Friday, July 22, 1864 - Marched at 7 AM. Moved slowly and reached Prospect Hills about 9 PM, making some 15 miles, I should judge. The marching today is the complete opposite of yesterday. Today we stop too much.

Saturday, July 23, 1864 - Moved at 7 AM. Crossed Chain Bridge. About 2 PM and camped near Tennallytown about 3 PM.

Sunday, July 24, 1864 - Lay in camp. Received our first mail since we left Fort Stevens.
Sam Lockwood visited us.

Monday, July 25, 1864 - Rainy. Capt. Mark & I went to Washington by the way of Georgetown. We got our pay. Went to the Mt. Pleasant Hospital to see Capt. Cossett & others of our wounded men.

Tuesday, July 26, 1864 - The regiment was paid 4 month's pay. Marched about noon about 8 miles to Rockville, a very pretty town of about 800 inhabitants.

Wednesday, July 27, 1864 - Marched about 6 AM. Passed Clarksburg & ________and stopped near Hyatts Town, making about 15 miles.

Thursday, July 28, 1864 - Marched at 5 AM. Our brigade led the army. Went 8 miles to Frederick and rested from 1 AM to 4 PM. Marched to Jefferson 12 miles and halted at 10 PM.
This is a beautiful valley and is finely cultivated.

Friday, July 29, 1864 - very warm. Marched at 5 AM. Passed Clarksburg & arrived at Harpers Ferry before noon. Took dinner on the banks of the Shenandoah. Then moved to near Halltown & staid for the night. The 15th cavalry is on picket to the front near Charleston.

Saturday, July 30, 1864 - Very warm. At 2 PM, got orders to move at daylight tomorrow & immediately got orders to move immediately. We got under arms & moved, but did not get across the river till about 10 PM. Marched all night.

Sunday, July 31, 1864 - Hot, Marched all night and halted at daylight to make coffee. Marched at 9 AM & arrived near Frederick & camped at 5-1/2 PM. More men fell by the way from the effects of the sun than I ever knew before. Several died and scores fell helpless.

Monday, August 1, 1864 - Lay in camp all day in a beautiful grove 1-1/2 miles from Frederick.

Tuesday, August 2, 1864 - Were ordered to move immediately. Order countermanded while we were starting.
Captain Marks & I went to Frederick & saw most of the town. It is a fine town of about 6000 or 7000 inhabitants.

Wednesday, August 3, 1864 - Moved to near Buckeysville (now Buckeystown) and the Monacacy. Forded the Monacacy.

Thursday, August 4, 1864 - Lay in camp.

Friday, August 5, 1864 - Was ordered to move at 4 AM. Moved at 10 PM. Went to Monacacy Junction.
Capt. Dwight returned just as we were starting.

Saturday, August 6, 1864 - Took the cars soon after daylight for Harpers Ferry. Arrived about 8 or 9 AM. Went to Halltown and went into camp.

Sunday, August 7, 1864 - Warm. Lay in camp.

Monday, August 8, 1864 - Warm. Lay in camp. Rumors of a move.

Tuesday, August 9, 1864 - Lay in camp & worked out returns. Finished up my Co. A ordinance Returns & made my CO. K Clothing return. Ordered to move at 5 in the morning.

Wednesday, August 10, 1864 - Marched at 5 AM. Marched all day, passing through Charlestown, 12 or 15 miles. The marching was well conducted. Saw some fine country.

Thursday, August 11, 1864 - Marched at 5 AM & camped near a fine stream. Marched about 12 miles.

Friday, August 12, 1864 - Marched at 5 Am, passing through Newtown and Middletown and soon found the rebs. Marched some 12 or 15 miles. There is rather lively skirmishing during the PM away at the front at 4 PM. Many men fell, overcome by heat.

Saturday, August 13, 1864 - Hot - Moved at 6 AM about 2 or 3 miles and to about 2 miles of Strausburg (Strasburg) & lay in the woods all day & moved back to the place occupied last in the evening. Rumor has it that the rebs are in a position too strong to be attacked.

Sunday, August 14, 1864 - Hot & an appearance of rain which would be very acceptable. Had a fine bath in Cedar Creek Run.

Monday, August 15, 1864 - Went on picket with two other regiments of or brigade.
Advanced the lines some and made good barricades. The left of the line was attacked by a considerable force & driven back. Our Division's line was not attacked.

Tuesday, August 16, 1864 - Warm. We are in the reserve. Moved at 9 PM acting as rear guard of the army. Marched all night, passing through Middletown and Newton.

Wednesday, August 17, 1864 - Marched all night & halted about 8 AM for breakfast. About 11 AM, went on. Passed through Winchester and camped about 4 miles from Berryville.
Much grain is being burned by our Cavalry by order. Sheep, Poultry, etc. are free booty on the march.

Thursday, August 18, 1864 - Marched at 5 AM. Went to within 2 miles of Charlestown & camped. Rations are short.
We passed through a very fine farming country today. The Valley is fine grain growing land.

Friday, Aug. 19, 1864 - Cloudy & rainy. Lay in camp. Commenced messing with Captains Mark & Dwight.

Saturday, Aug. 20, 1864 - Lay in camp. Rained some.

Sunday, Aug. 21, 1864 - Pleasant. While performing the usual Sunday morning inspection, the rebs drove in our pickets, threatening a strong attack. We got in line without finishing the inspection; Our skirmishers were drawn in, then (were) reinforced & regained the ground & were forced back a short distance. The rebs opened artillery on us as we were throwing up works. The skirmishing was sharp all day. We lost about 200.

Monday, Aug. 22, 1864 - Rained hard. Marched at about 11-1/2 last night and arrived at Halltown about 3 this AM. Went into line in a good position & threw up works. Had a heavy shower.

Tuesday, Aug. 23, 1864 - Were ordered to move at daylight this morning. Got ready to move, but only changed camp a little to the rear. The regiment was inspected by a Brigade inspector.

Wednesday, Aug. 24, 1864 - Pleasant. Expected an attack this morning & got under arms at 3 o'clock.

Thursday, Aug. 25, 1864 - Cloudy. Some rain. Went on picket at 4 AM.
Was in command of the picket of the division - about 300 (men). Had no fighting. Sent out tow patrols. They found the enemy's cavalry picket about two miles from our front. The 19th Corp's pickets (on our left) kept up a firing all day. Our cavalry had quite a fight near Shephardstown, a few miles in front of our right.

Friday, Aug. 26, 1864 - Were relieved about 5 AM. Went into camp and wrote most of the day.

Saturday, Aug. 27, 1864 - Commenced making payrolls. Inspection for condemnation of property.

Sunday, Aug. 28, 1864 - Were ordered to move at early daylight. Got up at 3 AM and moved at 8. Advanced slowly and halted about 6 PM near Charlestown where we were attacked a week ago. Our cavalry had had severe fighting.

Monday, Aug. 29, 1864 - Lay in camp. We hear considerable cannonading. Our division of our cavalry was nearly surrounded at one time.

Tuesday, Aug. 30, 1864 - Still in camp.

Wednesday, Aug. 31, 1864 - Were mustered at 7 AM by Major Brower.

Thursday, Sept. 1, 1864 - Remain in camp. Completed the muster rolls.

Saturday, Sept. 3, 1864 - Were ordered to move at 4 Am. Got ready but did not move till after 6. Made a rapid march to near Berryville. There is severe cavalry firing.

Sunday, Sept. 4, 1864 - Lay in the woods all day under orders to be ready to move at a moments notice. Our skirmishers were engaged & there is some artillery used.

Monday, Sept. 5, 1864 - Worked on rifle pits all day. I had charge of the work of our regiment. Rained part of the day and all night.

Tuesday, Sept. 6, 1864 - Rained all night & all day. Lay still.

Wednesday, Sept. 7, 1864 - Pleasant.

Thursday, Sept. 8, 1864 - Rainy.

Sunday, Sept. 11, 1864 - Cold & rainy.

Monday, Sept. 12, 1864 - A cold rainy day.

Tuesday, Sept. 13, 1864 - Moved about 6-1/2 Am across the country toward Winchester about 5 or 6 miles. Drove the reb pickets some distance when they made a stand & thee was firing all day with some artillery fire on both sides.

Wednesday, Sept. 14, 1864 - Went on picket & had command of the Brigade line. Rainy night & day.

Thursday, Sept. 15, 1864 - Pleasant.

Friday, Sept. 16, 1864 - Detailed on Court Martial & went in form picket.

Saturday, Sept. 17, 1864 - Went to Court Martial. Commenced the trial of a sutler for selling whiskey to enlisted men.

Sunday, Sept 18, 1864 - Cold & windy.

Monday, Sept. 19, 1864 - Moved at 1 AM. Arrived at the Opequon at daylight & found the cavalry hotly engaged across the creek. Our regiment was the first infantry in position & went into the most exposed place. Lt. Sims was killed. Four men were killed by one shell. Our whole line charged and drove the rebs.
I had command of about a mile of skirmish line, the only force on our left. We lost 7 men & one officer killed, 20 men & 4 officers wounded.
Achieved a glorious victory, completely routing the whole rebel force in the vicinity.

Tuesday, Sept. 20, 1864 - Moved at daylight from Winchester & arrived near Strasburg about 4 PM. I am in command of the regiment, the colonel & the major being slightly wounded.

Wednesday, Sept. 21, 1864 - Major Brower cam up last night and assumed command.
Moved at noon to the right of Strasburg & our regiment went on the skirmish line. We advanced and took a line of heights & towards night charged with a line of battle and took the rebs line. We were relieved after dark. Our forces threw up works during the night. We lost 5 wounded.

Thursday, Sept. 22, 1864 - Lay in the second line till afternoon. Had a very fine view of the line and preparations for attack. About 2 PM our Corps advanced to within range of the works. Our artillery followed and opened. The attack commenced on right by the 8th Corps turning the enemies flank. The advance continued from our right carrying everything. We move forward in fine style, but were broken some by getting by the steep hill. Our flag was the first in the works and we took the battery & one piece besides. We went on down the hill and took a good many prisoners. I commanded the regiment as the maj(or) is a little lame. The regiment did splendidly. The whole thing was glorious and the victory complete.
We marched all night and met no opposition.

Friday, Sept. 23, 1864 - Continued the march (in the) PM without finding them (the rebs).

Saturday, Sept. 24, 1864 - Started at daylight and soon found the rebs at Mount Jackson, the first place they have made a show of resistance. Found some of our wounded prisoners here. We followed them closely all day, continuously firing at their rear & much of the time in sight of their train.
Camped for the night near New Market.

Sunday, Sept. 25, 1864 - Started about 6 AM and arrived at Harrisonburg about 4 PM without overtaking the rebs. Camped around the town.

Monday, Sept. 26, 1864 - Remained in camp. Went to town, a rather fine place of about 1, 500 inhabitants, all bitter secessionists. The inhabitants were harshly treated by Generals Hunter's & Freemont's armies.

Tuesday, Sept. 27, 1864 - Lay in camp. Visited Mr. Liggett or rather Emma Floyd Windfield & sister. Very intelligent & refined young ladies but most bitter secessh. Am detailed on a commission.

Wednesday, Sept. 28, 1864 - Were ordered to move at 5 AM. Got ready, but the order was countermanded at 7 AM. Court of Inquiry me (in the) AM & adj(ourned) Court martial met and finished the case of Henry Long, Sutler, 93rd Pennsylvania. Played Euchre with Miss Emma F. Winfield.

Thursday, Sept. 29, 1864 - Moved at 5 AM to Mt. Crawford & halted for the day. Court Martial met in the Church and tried Harry W. Downes (Downer?) for cowardice.
This valley is one of the finest agricultural districts I ever saw.

Friday, Sept. 30, 1864 - Court Martial met in the church again and tried musician _____ for absence without leave, disorderly condut, & C.
Moved PM back to Harrisonburg, arriving about dark.

Saturday, Oct. 1, 1864 - A rainy, dismal day.

Sunday, Oct. 2, 1864 - Rather pleasant.

Monday, Oct. 3, 1864 - Court Marial met & disposed of two cases. Lt. Meigs, General Sheridan's Aide, was murdered this PM while carrying dispatches to General Custer. Ordered to move at 5 AM but did not.

Tuesday, Oct. 4, 1864 - Attended C(ourt) M(artial), disposing of two cases.
Everything within two miles of the place where Lt. Meigs was murdered was burned by order of Gen(eral) Sheridan.

Wednesday, Oct. 5, 1864 - Attended C.M. Spent the evening very pleasantly with Miss Winfield.

Thursday, Oct. 6, 1864 - Moved at daylight. Marched to near Mount Jackson & campted for the night. There are many fires today.

Friday, Oct. 7, 1864 - Started about sunrise & while we were waiting at the bridge, fires were burning most all around us. I deplore this unbounded destruction of property. Camped at 4 PM near woodstock. Our regiment received pay near Woodstock. I rec'd for July and August two hundred fifty two (dollars) ($252.00) & sent draft for $175.00 to P.L.Perrine.

Saturday, Oct. 8, 1864 - Moved about 7 AM to Strasburg. The rebs attack our cavalry & rumor says, captured the cavalry train.
A very windy, rough day. The burning is still continued as fast as we move.
Visited our position on the battle field.

Sunday, Oct. 9, 1864 - Cold & windy. The regiment went on picket.
Lay at Strasburg.

Monday, Oct. 10, 1864 - Moved at 6-1/2 AM. Went to Middletown, then across the country to near Front Royal, about 16 or 17 miles. The pickets came up about dark.

Tuesday, Oct. 11, 1864 - Moved at daybreak across the two branches of the Shenandoah and the 2d brigade went into camp by regiments along the river on picket.

Wednesday, Oct. 12, 1864 - Lay in camp at Front Royal.

Thursday, October 13, 1864 - Moved at 4 AM. Made a hurried march to Ashby's gap under orders to go to Alexandria & City Point. At the ford, the order was countermanded and we rested for the night at Millwood.

Friday, Oct. 14, 1864 - Marched at 4 Am through Newtown & Middletown and stopped near Cedar Creek.
A rather severe march.

Saturday, Oct. 15, 1864 - Lay in camp. Court Martial met (in the) PM & tried Lt. Smith of the 98th Pa. For absence without leave and private ______for stealing $157.

Sunday, Oct. 16, 1864 - Lay in camp.

Monday, Oct. 17, 1864 - Went to Court Martial & was excused - not feeling well. Our regiment attended to voting.

Tuesday, Oct. 18, 1864 - went to C.M. Visited a cave and found it very interesting.

Wednesday, Oct. 19, 1864 - At 3 AM picket firing opened on the right on our front. Soon after, it commenced on the left, increasing continually. Near daylight, we turned out & were soon moved to the left at a double quick.
Our regiment sent the rebs back in their first attack on us, but Lt. Col. Dwight was wounded & major Brower killed. We fell back a short distance in good order and took an new position, Gen. Sheridan came up about 11 AM.
About 4 PM we advanced & carried everything, driving the rebs in mad confusion across Cedar Creek. From there the Cavalry dashed on and captured most everything of the rebs. I commanded the regiment after the Major fell & they did splendidly.

Thursday, Oct. 20, 1864 - Last evening we went into the camp we left in the morning. Today, I saw 1000 prisoners, 43 guns & a long train, trophies of yesterday.

Friday, Oct. 21, 1864 - Moved to near Strasburg with only our division & the regiment went on picket. We have only 4 officers for duty.

Saturday, Oct. 22, 1864 - Cold.

Sunday, Oct 23, 1864 - Cold unpleasant day. Am detailed on a new Court Martial.

Monday, Oct. 24, 1864 - Attended Court Martial. The regiment came in form Picket.

Tuesday, Oct. 25, 1864 - Attended Court Martial.

Wednesday, Oct. 26, 1864 - Still in camp and no sign of a movement soon. Court Martial has adjourned for a day or two. Drills are to be had every day.

Saturday, Oct. 29, 1864 - Have commenced fixing up.

Sunday, October 30, 1864 - Am brigade officer of the day but am irregularly detailed.

Monday, October 31, 1864 - Cold. The Division was reviewed by General Getty this Am, all of which passed off very finely.
I mustered the regiment.

Tuesday, November 1, 1864 - Company drill Am. We had a Brigade drill this PM.

Wednesday, November 2, 1864 - Rainy.

Thursday, Nov. 3, 1864 - Rainy. Chaplin started for home.

Sunday, November 6, 1864 - We are under orders to be ready to move at a moments notice.

Wednesday, November 9, 1864 - Got under arms at 4:30 AM and moved at daylight. Crossed Cedar Creek and rested at Belle Grove till 10 or 11 AM. Marched with the rest of the army to near Winchester.

Thursday, November 10, 1864 - Commenced making camp about 4 miles from Winchester.

Friday, November 11, 1864 - Our pickets were forced back some. The regiment worked PM and night on works. Court Martial met Election new is good.

Saturday, November 12, 1864 - (no entry)

Sunday, November 13, 1864 - Cold & windy Had a Brigade Dress Parade. I am still in command of the regiment.

Monday, November 21, 1864 - The Corps was reviewed by Gen. Sheridan.

Wednesday, November 23, 1864 - Attend Court Martial every day.

Thursday, November 24, 1864 - All the officers took dinner here. (in Clapp's tent?)

Friday, Dec. 2, 1864 - The first Division of our Corps had gone to Washington.

Saturday, Dec. 3, 1864 - have attended Court Martial every day. The Court had been in session since Sept. 15th.
The 3d division moved this morning.

Sunday, Dec. 4, 1864 - Cool but pleasant.

Thursday, Dec. 8, 1864 - Cold. Court Martial reassembled & adjuourned till tomorrow morning.

Friday, Dec. 9, 1864 - Moved at daylight. Moarched to Stevenson Station took the cars & started about 4 PM. Got along slowly.

Saturday, Dec. 10, 1864 - Made slow time & arrived at the relay House about 4 PM.
Brig. Gen. D.B. Taylor arrested two men and got out two pieces of artillery & trained them on the train. Left about 10 PM. AM in command of the train.

Sunday, Dec. 11, 1864 - Arrived at Washington about 2 or 3 AM. Got transportation and embarked on the Mary Washington about 5 AM. Drew rations and started at 8 AM. The men are a little noisy. Am in command on board. The wind was so high that we lay up at the mouth of the St. Mary's (river).

Monday, Dec. 12, 1864 - Started out the am about 7. Had a rough day. Many of the men were sea sick. Lay up at dark at ____.

Tuesday, Dec. 13, 1864 - Arrived at City Point about 12 M. took a train and started at 1 PM. Arrived at Warren station at 4 PM and marched about three miles to near Patrick Station. Found the rest of the regiment under command of Captain Marks.

Wednesday, Dec. 14, 1864 - Commenced making camp.

Thursday, Dec. 15, 1864 - Worked at camp.

Friday, Dec. 16, 1864 - We are getting along finely making camp.

Saturday, Dec. 17, 1864 - My commission as Major came.

Sunday, Dec. 18, 1864 - Was mustered as Major by Capt. A. J. Smith.
Heard of Gen. Thomas's splendid victory near Nashville.

Monday, Dec. 19, 1864 - There was an alarm on the picket line last night. Went to the 1st Division.

Tuesday, Dec. 20, 1864 - Cold & windy. All quiet along the lines.
Am detailed as Division.

Wednesday, Dec. 21, 1864 - Rainy in the morning and very cold at night. All quiet on our Division picket line.

Sunday, Dec. 25, 1864 - A dull Christmas.

Saturday, Dec. 31, 1864 - We are still in camp about 4 miles from Petersburg. Our formidable works are being made still stronger. National Affairs have not been so promising since the rebellion broke out. Our armies are meeting with success in every quarter except at Wilmington (Where Gen. Butler had been repulsed at Fort Fisher).
I say, Good bye old year", with peculiar sensations. It had been a good year to me, though it had taken many friends in arms.