Why is it a good idea to
study stereotypes in context?
Because without some context we can't understand
why people believe in stereotypes, why certain stereotypes persist through
time, how they change, or where stereotypes come from. People are stereotyped
according to some group they are perceived to be a part of. Without
context, we can't understand why a particular group of people gets assigned
a certain kind of label and not another.
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of contents for the Stereotypes in Context pages
- Understanding stereotypes:
- What makes something a stereotype
- Definition of stereotype
- Discussion of images and dialogue from Pulp Fiction
- Native American stereotypes: Link to "Ten Little Indians"
video clip, discussion questions, and team names issue
- What it means to put issues in context
- Obsession ads; analysis of self esteem
- Link to Adbusters
- Media literacy
- 5 principles of media literacy
- Link to Ontario Ministry of Ed explanation of the 5 principles
- 6 questions to ask of any media
- Link to Project Look Sharp
- 2 Quotes from Mike Males' Framing Youth:
- "[There are] two types of media influence.
- "Media literacy is reasonable, but it doesn't get
at the real problem. . .
- USM assignments
- USM 1: Link to stereotype handout and summary exercise.
- USM 2: Link to University of Iowa site to skim articles
and send me an email.
- USM 3: Sexual objectification exercise
- USM 4: Political and economic contexts (anti war & IBM
- USM 5: Name that context! exercise
- USM 6: Cultural definitions of men and women exercise. Link
to audio clip from The Rock and video clip from a cell
- USM 7: Discussion of Rayban ad and quotes from Berger on
women's "split self"
- USM 8: Humorous quotes
- USM 9: Repeat USM 4 using media literacy tools
- Context: Ads as forms of communication
- Ads themselves: For ads to work, they have to get their message
- Quote from Arthur Berger on the aesthetic composition of
ads. "Factors such as line, shape, dimension, lighting,
design, spatiality, color, and perspective. . .
- Link to Arthur Berger's Checklist for Analyzing Print Advertisements
- AFC assignment 1: Link to DuMaurier/ Chloe exercise
- The paradigms the viewer brings to the ads.
- AFC assignment 2: paradigm influence
- AFC assignment 3: bring in media examples showing possibility
of varying interpretations
- The philosophical system of values and beliefs assumed by all
- AFC assignment 4: 3 quotes by John Berger - paraphrase
- "Publicity adds up to a kind of philosophical
- "We are now so accustomed to being addressed by
these images that we scarcely notice their total impact....
- "Publicity is not merely an assembly of competing
messages: it is a language in itself which is always being
used to make the same general proposal....
- AFC assignment 5: Link to Kira St. John's Wort and Clairol
ads exercise; bring in examples of make over ads
- Context: The fantasy life
of ads - Assignments for pairs to do in a computer lab
outside of class
- Quote from Berger: "Publicity can never really afford to
be about the product ..."
- Questions about ad from Toyota
- Quotes from Berger and a paraphrase exercise
- "Publicity speaks in the future tense and
yet the achievement of this future is endlessly deferred...."
- "The fantasy life of ads explains why ads can remain
- Discussion on what dreams and hopes you have....
Questions about collage of man/ woman ads with application
to Berger quote, "With this you will become desirable...."
Questions about 2 Finlandia ads
Discussion of ad for American Express and domestic partner
- Comparison of 7 with American Express ad targeted at African
- Discussion of 212 Cologne ad
- Context: The anxious consumer
- Quote from Berger: "The purpose of [ads] is to make the
spectator marginally dissatisfied . . .
- Quote from ad exec: "Advertising deals in open sores. .
- Psychogenic profiles.
- Quote from Meyers: "At the heart of Madison Avenue's new,
elaborately engineered system of persuasion lies one fundamental
premise. . .
- AC assignment 1: summarize arguments from Meyers and Campbell
- SRI link and quotes
- "SRI Consulting's VALS Program is based on
the basic forces driving consumer choices . . .
- "Every vendor wants to get close to its customers by
understanding behaviors. . .
- AC assignment 2: Link to SRI
- Meyers' 5 psychogenic categories - table
- AC assignment 3: Link to sample ads to categorize
- Context: The political economy
- John Berger's analysis of the role of ads in capitalism. 2 quotes:
- "Publicity is the culture of the consumer
society. . . (Berger)
- "Ad Alley's wizards. . . (Meters)
- Using the concept of ideology; link to ideology handout; ads
present a sham democracy (Berger)
- Link to Barely There ad
- issue appropriation; link to Southwestern Bell & Monistat
- Quote from Berger: "Publicity turns consumption into
a substitute for democracy. . .
- Rebecca photo from Helen Stummer vs. Vogue ad
- Link to Amazon.com for review of Ways of Seeing
- Berger's analogy between ads and oil paintings; link to Nicole
Kidman ads and John Sargent portraits
- Andersen, Margaret L. and Patricia Hill Collins, eds. Race, Class,
and Gender : An Anthology, 3rd edition. Wadsworth Publishing Company,
- Berger, Arthur Asa. Seeing Is Believing. Mayfield Publishing
- Berger, John. Ways of Seeing, reprint edition. Viking Press,
- Males, Mike. Framing Youth. Common Courage Press, 1999.
- Meyers, William. Image Makers. New York, 1984.
- Ontario Ministry of Education, Intermediate and Senior Divisions.
Media Literacy Resource Guide. 1989.