Theory Name: Andragogy
Authors: Knowles, Malcolm
Associated Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory
Andragogy applies to any form of adult learning and has been used extensively
in the design of organizational training programs.
Specification of Theory
(a) Goals and preconditions
Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of the instruction,
experience provides the basis for learning activities, adults are most
interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their
job and learning is problem-centered rather than content oriented.
This theory was specifically designed for adult learning and Knowles
emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility
for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental
(c) Condition of learning
It is based on ones own experiences and motivation.
(d) Required media
(e) Role of facilitator
The adults is both the facilitator and the learner.
(f) Instructional strategies
1. Self concept-as a person matures his self concept moves from one of
being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human
2. Experience – as a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir
of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.
3. Readiness to learn- as a person matures his readiness to learn becomes
oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles
4. Orientation to learning - As a person matures his time perspective
changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of
application, and accordingly his orientation toward learning shifts from
one of subject-centeredness to one of problem centeredness.
5. Motivation to learn – as a person matures the motivation to
learn is internal.
(g) Assessment method
Evaluate the learning outcomes stated in the beginning.
Formative Research & Application
(a) Tested context - Adult Learning. Higher Ed. Non-profit. Business
(b) Research method - Qualitative
(c) Research description – Case Studies