Theory Name: Andragogy

Authors: Knowles, Malcolm

Associated Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory

Model Description
Andragogy applies to any form of adult learning and has been used extensively in the design of organizational training programs.

Specification of Theory
(a) Goals and preconditions
Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of the instruction, experience provides the basis for learning activities, adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job and learning is problem-centered rather than content oriented.

(b) Principles
This theory was specifically designed for adult learning and Knowles emphasizes that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental aspect.

(c) Condition of learning
It is based on ones own experiences and motivation.

(d) Required media

(e) Role of facilitator
The adults is both the facilitator and the learner.

(f) Instructional strategies
1. Self concept-as a person matures his self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being
2. Experience – as a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.
3. Readiness to learn- as a person matures his readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles
4. Orientation to learning - As a person matures his time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly his orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject-centeredness to one of problem centeredness.
5. Motivation to learn – as a person matures the motivation to learn is internal.

(g) Assessment method
Evaluate the learning outcomes stated in the beginning.

Formative Research & Application
(a) Tested context - Adult Learning. Higher Ed. Non-profit. Business
(b) Research method - Qualitative
(c) Research description – Case Studies
(d) Resources

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