Theory Name: Structured Design for Attitudinal Instruction

Authors: Kamradt, Thomas F., Kamradt, Elizabeth, J.

Associated Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory

Model Description
Stuctured Design for Attitudinal Instruction prescribes instruction for changing attitudes. This model is based on a relationship between the three domains of learning: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. Learners must decide to change their attitude and then be guided through progessive changes based on dissonance.

Specification of Theory
(a) Goals and preconditions
Overall outcome is a change in attitude.

(b) Principles
1. Change of attitudes is based on a model that creates a relationship between the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domain.
2. The affective domain responds to a needs state (learner has a feeling). This causes the cognitive domain to make a decision. This decision is played out as a behavior (psychomotor domain) in order to fulfill the need state.
3. A shift in attitudes requires a progressive change.

(c) Condition of learning
1. Learner must recognize that a change in attitude can/should be made.
2. Learner must agree to change their attitude.
3. Dissonance must be created at some point in the attitude model (above) and diagnosed in order to complete instruction.
4. Learning will not damage a proven attitude.
5. The dissonance must exist for a very short period of time.

(d) Required media
(e) Role of facilitator
Create and identify dissonance. Provide support for the learner.

(f) Instructional strategies
1. Activate attitude. This generally calls for creating a situation where the learner must perform a required behavior.

a. Activation can be direct or indirect.
b. The activation should be inconsistent with the learner’s existing attitude and be in the direction of the change, creating dissonance.

2. Diagnose the dissonance with a series of questions.

- How did that situation make you feel? --> affective domain
- What were you thinking? --> cognitive domain
- Why did you do what you did? --> psychomotor domain

3. Address the most dissonant component first.

- Affective --> operant conditioning
- Cognitive --> persuasion
- Behavioral --> demonstration and practice

4. Consolidate the attitude.

- Allow for transfer events before creating dissonance again.

(g) Assessment method
The learner has adopted a new attitude if they can:
1. perform a behavior without clumsiness or delay,
2. explain their position without confusion,
3. recognize feelings about a satisfied need state.

Formative Research & Application

(a) Tested context - Business
(b) Research method
(c) Research description
(d) Resources
Kamradt, T.F., Kamradt, E.J. (1999). Structured design for attitudinal instruction. In Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: a new paradigm of instructional theory: Vol. II. (pp. 563 - 590). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishing.

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