Theory Name: Structured Design for Attitudinal Instruction
Authors: Kamradt, Thomas F., Kamradt, Elizabeth, J.
Associated Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory
Stuctured Design for Attitudinal Instruction prescribes instruction for
changing attitudes. This model is based on a relationship between the
three domains of learning: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. Learners
must decide to change their attitude and then be guided through progessive
changes based on dissonance.
Specification of Theory
(a) Goals and preconditions
Overall outcome is a change in attitude.
1. Change of attitudes is based on a model that creates a relationship
between the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domain.
2. The affective domain responds to a needs state (learner has a feeling).
This causes the cognitive domain to make a decision. This decision is
played out as a behavior (psychomotor domain) in order to fulfill the
3. A shift in attitudes requires a progressive change.
(c) Condition of learning
1. Learner must recognize that a change in attitude can/should be made.
2. Learner must agree to change their attitude.
3. Dissonance must be created at some point in the attitude model (above)
and diagnosed in order to complete instruction.
4. Learning will not damage a proven attitude.
5. The dissonance must exist for a very short period of time.
(d) Required media
(e) Role of facilitator
Create and identify dissonance. Provide support for the learner.
(f) Instructional strategies
1. Activate attitude. This generally calls for creating a situation where
the learner must perform a required behavior.
a. Activation can be direct or indirect.
b. The activation should be inconsistent with the learner’s existing
attitude and be in the direction of the change, creating dissonance.
2. Diagnose the dissonance with a series of questions.
- How did that situation make you feel? --> affective domain
- What were you thinking? --> cognitive domain
- Why did you do what you did? --> psychomotor domain
3. Address the most dissonant component first.
- Affective --> operant conditioning
- Cognitive --> persuasion
- Behavioral --> demonstration and practice
4. Consolidate the attitude.
- Allow for transfer events before creating dissonance again.
(g) Assessment method
The learner has adopted a new attitude if they can:
1. perform a behavior without clumsiness or delay,
2. explain their position without confusion,
3. recognize feelings about a satisfied need state.
Formative Research & Application
(a) Tested context -
(b) Research method
(c) Research description
Kamradt, T.F., Kamradt, E.J. (1999). Structured design for attitudinal
instruction. In Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.), Instructional-design theories
and models: a new paradigm of instructional theory: Vol. II. (pp. 563
- 590). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishing.